Friday, 4 March 2016

The Transfer of Property Act, 1882

ACT NO. IV OF 1882
C O N T E N T S
CHAPTER 1
PRELIMINARY

SECTIONS
1. Short title, Commencement and Extent.
2. Repeal of Acts.
Saving of certain enactments, incidents, rights, liabilities etc.
3. Interpretation-clause.
4. Enactments relating to contracts to be taken as part of Contract Act.
CHAPTER II
OF TRANSFERS OF PROPERTY BY ACT OF PAKISTAN.
(A) Transfer of Property, whether moveable or immoveable.
5. “Transfer of property” define.
6. What may be transferred.
7. Persons competent to transfer.
8. Operation of transfer.
9. Oral transfer.
10. Condition restraining alienation.
11. Restriction repugnant to interest created.
12. Condition making interest determinable on insolvency or attempted alienation.
13. Transfer for benefit of unborn person.
14. Rule against perpetuity.
15. Transfer of class some of whom come under section 13 and 14.
16. Transfer to take effect on failure of prior interest.
17. Direction for accumulation.
18. Transfer in perpetuity for benefit of public.
19. Vested interest.
20. When unborn person acquires vested interest on transfer for his benefit.
21. Contingent interest.
22. Transfer to members of a class who attain a particular age.
23. Transfer contingent on happening of specified uncertain event.
24. Transfer to such of certain persons as survive at some period no specified.
25. Conditional transfer.
26. Fulfillment of condition precedent.
27. Conditional transfer to one person coupled with transfer to another on failure of
prior disposition.
28. Ulterior transfer conditional on happening or not happening of specified event.
29. Fulfillment of condition subsequent.
30. Prior disposition not affected by invalidity of ulterior disposition.
31. Condition that transfer shall cease to have effect in case specified uncertain event
happens or does not happen.
32. Such condition must not be invalid.
33. Transfer conditional on performance of act, no time being specified for
performance.
34. Transfer conditional on performance of act, time being specified.
35. Election when necessary.
36. Apportionment of periodical payments on determination of interest of person
entitled.
37. Apportionment of benefit of obligation on severance.
(B) Transfer of Immovable Property.
38. Transfer by person authorized only under certain circumstances to transfer.
39. Transfer where third person is entitled to maintenance.
40. Burden of obligation imposing restriction on use of land, or of obligation annexed
to ownership but not amounting to interest or easement.
41. Transfer by ostensible owner.
42. Transfer by person having authority to revoke former transfer.
43. Transfer by unauthorized person who subsequently acquires interest in property
transferred.
44. Transfer by one co-owner.
45. Joint Transfer for consideration.
46. Transfer for consideration by persons having district interests.
47. Transfer by co-owners of share in common property.
48. Priority of rights created by transfer.
49. Transferee’s right under policy.
50. Rent bona fide paid to holder under defective title.
51. Improvements made by bona fide holders under defective titles.
52. Transfer of property pending suit relating thereto.
53. Fraudulent transfer.
53 A. Part performance.
CHAPTER III
OF SALES OF IMMOVEABLE PROPERTY.
54. “Sale” defined. Sale how made. Contract for sale.
55. Rights and liabilities of buyer and seller.
56. Marshalling by subsequent purchaser.
Discharge of Incumbrances on Sale.
57. Provision by Court for incumbrance and sale freed therefrom.
CHAPTER IV
OF MORTGAGES OF IMMOVEABLE PROPERTY AND CHARGES.
58. “Mortgage,” “mortgage,” “mortgage,” “mortgage-money” and “mortgage-deed”
defined.
Simple mortgage.
Mortgage by conditional sale.
Usufructuary mortgage.
English mortgage.
Mortgage by deposit of title-deeds.
Anomalous mortgage.
59. References to mortgagors and mortgagees to include persons deriving title from
them.
Rights and Liabilities of Mortgagor.
60. Right of mortgagor to redeem.
Redemption of portion of mortgaged property.
60 A. Obligation to transfer to third party instead of re-transference to mortgagor.
60 B. Right to inspection and production of documents.
61. Right to redeem separately or simultaneously.
62. Right of usufructuary mortgagor to recover possession.
63. Accession to mortgaged property.
Accession acquired in virtue of transferred ownership.
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63 A. Improvements to mortgaged property.
64. Renewal of mortgaged lease.
65. Implied contracts by mortgagor.
65 A. Mortgagor’s power to lease.
66. Waste by mortgagor in possession.
Rights and Liabilities of Mortgagee.
67. Right to foreclosure or sale.
67 A. Mortgagee when bound to bring one suit on several mortgages.
68. Right to sue for mortgage-money.
69. Power of sale when valid.
69 A. Appointment of receiver.
70. Accession to mortgaged property.
71. Renewal of mortgaged lease.
72. Rights of mortgagee in possession.
73. Right to proceeds of revenue sale or compensation on acquisition.
74-75 [Repealed.]
76. Liabilities of mortgagee in possession.
Loss occasioned by his default.
77. Receipts in lieu of interest.
Priority
78. Postponement of prior mortgagee.
79. Mortgage to secure uncertain amount when maximum is expressed.
80. [Repealed.]
Marshalling and Contribution
81. Marshalling securities.
82. Contribution to mortgage-debt.
Deposit in Court
83. Power to deposit in Court money due on mortgage.
Right to money deposited by mortgagor.
84. Cessation of interest.
85 to 90 [Repealed.]
91. Who may sue for redemption.
92. Subrogation.
93. Prohibition of taking.
94. Rights of mesne mortgagee.
95. Right of redeeming co-mortgagor to expenses.
96. Mortgage by deposit of title-deeds.
97. [Repealed.]
Anomalous Mortgages.
98. Rights and liabilities of parties to anomalous mortgages.
99. [Repealed.]
Charges
100. Charges.
101. No merger in case of subsequent encumbrance.
Notice and Tender
102. Service or tender on or to agent.
103. Notice, etc., to or by person incompetent to contract.
104. Power to make rules.
CHAPTER V
OF LEASES OF IMMOVEABLE PROPERTY.
105. “Lease” defined.
“Lessor,” “lessee,” “premium” and “rent” defined.
106. Duration of certain leases in absence of written contract or local usage.
107 Leases how made.
108. Rights and liabilities of lessor and lessee.
109. Rights of lessor’s transferee.
110. Exclusion of day on which term commences.
Duration of lease for a year.
Option to determine lease.
111. Determination of lease.
112. Waiver of forfeiture.
113. Waiver of notice to quit.
114. Relief against forfeiture for non-payment of rent.
114 A. Relief against forfeiture in certain other cases.
115. Effect of surrender and forfeiture on under-leases.
116. Effect of holding over.
117. Exemption of leases for agricultural purposes.
CHAPTER VI
OF EXCHANGES.
118. “Exchange” defined.
119. Right of party deprived of thing received in exchange.
120. Rights and liabilities of parties.
121. Exchange of money.
CHAPTER VII
OF GIFTS.
122. “Gift” defined.
Acceptance when to be made.
123. Transfer how effected.
124. Gift of existing and future property.
125. Gift to several of whom one does not accept.
126. When gift may be suspended or revoked.
127. Onerous gifts.
Onerous gift to disqualified person.
128. Universal donee.
129. Saving of donations mortis causa and Muslim law.
CHAPTER VIII
OF TRANSFERS OF ACTIONABLE CLAIMS.
130. Transfer of actionable claim.
130 A. Transfer of policy of marine insurance.
131. Notice to be in writing, signed.
132. Liability of transferee of actionable claim.
133. Warranty of solvency of debtor.
134. Mortgaged debt.
135. Assignment of rights under policy of insurance against fire.
135 A. Assignment of rights under policy of marine insurance.
136. Incapacity of officers connected with Courts of Justice.
137. Saving of negotiable instruments, etc.
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1The Transfer of Property Act, 1882
(ACT NO. IV OF 1882)
[17th February 1882]
An Act to amend the law relating to the Transfer of Property by Act of Parties.
Preamble. WHEREAS it is expedient to define and amend certain parts of the law
relating to the Transfer of Property by Act of parties; It is hereby enacted as
follows: -
CHAPTER 1
PRELIMINARY
Short title. 1. This Act may be called the Transfer of Property Act, 1882.
Commencement: It shall come into force on the first day of July, 1882.
2[* * * * * * * *]
3[ 4[This] Act or any Part thereof may by notification in the official Gazette, be
extended to the whole or any part of 5[a Province] 6[by the Provincial Government].
7[And any 8[Provincial Government] may, 9[* * *] from time to time, by
notification in the 10[official Gazette], exempt either retrospectively and part of the territories
administered by such 11[Provincial Government] from all or any of the following provisions,
namely:-
Section 54, paragraphs 2 and 3, 59, 107 and 123.]
12[Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing part of this section, section 54,
paragraphs 2 and 3, 59, 107 and 123 shall not extend or be extended to any district or tract of
country for the time being excluded from the operation of the Registration Act, 13[1908],
under the power conferred by the first section of that Act or otherwise.]
2. Repeal of Acts. Saving of certain enactments, incidents, rights, liabilities,
etc. In the territories to which this Act extends for the time being the enactments specified in
the Schedule hereto annexed shall be repealed to the extent therein mentioned. But nothing
herein contained shall be deemed to affect:-
(a) the provisions of any enactment not hereby expressly repealed:
(b) any terms or incidents of any contract or Constitution of property which are
consistent with the provisions of this Act, and are allowed by the law for the
time being in force;
(c) any right or liability arising out of a legal relation constituted before this Act
comes into force, or any relief in respect of any such right or liability; or
(d) save as provided by section 57 and Chapter IV of this Act, any transfer by
operation of law or by, or in execution of, a decree or order of a Court of
competent jurisdiction;
and nothing in the Second Chapter of this Act shall be deemed to affect any rule of
14* [Muslim] ** law.
3. Interpretation clause. In this Act, unless there is something repugnant in the
subject or context, -
“immovable property” does not include standing timber, growing crops or grass;
“instrument” means a non-testamentary instrument:
15[“attested”, in relation to an instrument, means 16[and shall be deemed always to
have meant] attested by two or more witnesses each of whom has seen the executant sign or
affix his mark to the instrument, or has seen some other person sign the instrument in the
presence and by the direction of the executant, or has received from the executant a personal
acknowledgment or his signature or mark, or of the signature of such other person, and each
of whom has signed the instrument in the presence of the executant; but it shall not be
necessary that more than one of such witnesses shall have been present at the same time, and
no particular form of attestation shall be necessary;]
“registered” means registered in 17[a province] under the law for the time being in
force regulating the registration of documents;
“attached to the earth” means-
(a) rooted in the earth, as in the case of trees and shrubs;
(b) imbedded in the earth, as in the case of walls or buildings; or
(c) attached to what is so imbedded for the permanent beneficial enjoyment of
that to which it is attached;
18[“Actionable claim” meant a claim to any debt, other than a debt secured by
mortgage of immovable property or by hypothecation or pledge of movable property or to
any beneficial interest in movable property not in the possession, either actual or
constructive, of the claimant, which the Civil Courts recognize as affording grounds for
relief, whether such debt or beneficial interest be existent, accruing, conditional or
contingent:]
19[“a person is said to have notice” of a fact when he actually knows that fact, or
when but for wilful abstention from an inquiry or search which he ought to have made, or
gross negligence, he would have known it.
Explanation 1. -Where any transaction relating to immovable property is required by
law to be and has been effected by a registered instrument, any person acquiring such
property or any part of, or share or interest, in such property shall be deemed to have notice
of such instrument as from the date of registration or, ''where the property is not all situated in
one sub-district, or where the registered instrument has been registered under Sub-section (2)
of section 30 of the Registration Act, 1908, (XVI of 1908) from the earliest date on which
any memorandum of such registered instrument has been filed by any Sub-Registrar within
whose sub-district any part of the property which is being acquired, or of the property
wherein a share or interest is being acquired, is situated:]
Provided that7
(1) the instrument has been registered and its registration completed in the manner
prescribed by the Registration Act, 1908, (XVI of 1908). And the rules made
thereunder;
(2) the instrument or memorandum has been duly entered or filed, as the case may
be, in books kept under section 51 of that Act; and
(3) the particulars-regarding the transaction to which instrument relates have been
correctly entered in the indexes kept under section 55 of that Act.
Explanation II.-Any person acquiring any immovable property or any share or
interest in any such property shall be deemed to have notice of the title, if any, person who is
for the time being in actual possession thereof.
Explanation III.-A person shall be deemed to have had notice of any fact if his agent
acquires notice thereof whilst acting on his behalf in the course of business to which that fact
is material:
Provided that, if the agent fraudulently conceals the fact, the principal shall not be
charged with notice thereof as against any person who was a party to or otherwise cognizant
of the fraud.
4. Enactments relating to contracts to be taken as part of Contract Act. The
chapters and sections of this Act which relate to contracts shall be taken as part of one
Contract Act, 1872.
And section 54, paragraphs 2 and 3, 59, 107 and 123 shall be read as supplemental to
the Registration Act, 1908.
CHAPTER II
OF TRANSFERS OF PROPERTY BY ACT OF PARTIES
(A) Transfer of Property, whether moveable or immovable
5. “Transfer of property”, defined. In the following sections 'Transfer of
Property' means and act by which a living person conveys property, in present or in future, to
one or more other living persons, or to himself, or to himself and one or more other living
persons: and 'to transfer property' is to perform such act.
In this section 'living person' includes a company or association or body of
individuals, whether incorporated or not, but both in herein contained shall affect any law for
the time being in force relating to transfer of property to or by companies, associations or
besides of individuals.
6. What may be transferred. Property of any kind may be transferred, except as
otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force:-
(a) The chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, the chance of a
relation obtaining a legacy on the death of a kinsman, or any other mere
possibility of a like nature, cannot be transferred.
(b) A mere right of re-entry for breach of a condition subsequent cannot be
transferred to any one except the owner of the property affected thereby.
(c) An easement cannot be transferred apart from the dominant heritage.
(d) An interest in property restricted in its enjoyment to the owner personally
cannot be transferred by him.
(dd) A right to future maintenance, in whatsoever manner arising, secured or
determined, cannot be transferred.
(e) A mere right to sue cannot be transferred.
(f) A public office cannot be transferred, nor can the salary of a public officer,
whether before or after it has become payable.
(g) Stipends allowed to military, naval, air-force and civil pensioners of the
Government and political pensions cannot be transferred.
(h) No transfer can be made, (I) in so far as it is opposed to the nature of the
interest affected thereby, or (2) 20[for an unlawful object or consideration
within the meaning of section 23 of the Contract Act, 1872,] or (3) to a person
legally disqualified to be transferee.
(i) 21[Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorize a tenant having an
untransferable right of occupancy, the farmer of an estate in respect of which
default has been made in paying revenue or the lessee of an estate under the
management of a Court of Wards, to assign his interest as such tenant, farmer
or lessee. ]
7. Persons competent to transfer. Every person competent to contract and
entitled to transferable property, or authorized to dispose of transferable property not his own,
is competent to transfer such property either wholly or in part, and either absolutely or
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conditionally, in the circumstances, to the extent and in the manner allowed and prescribed by
any law for the time being in force.
8. Operation of transfer. Unless a different intention is expressed or necessarily
implied, a transfer of property passes forthwith to the transferee all the interest which the
transferor is then capable of passing in the property and in the legal incidents thereof.
Such incidents include, where the property is land, the easements annexed thereto, the
rents and profit thereof accruing after the transfer, and all things attached to the earth;
and, where the property is machinery attached to the earth, the movable parts thereof;
and, where the property is a house, the easements annexed thereto, the rent thereof
accruing after the transfer, and the locks, keys, bars, doors, windows, and all other things
provided for permanent use therewith;
and, where the property is a debt or other actionable claim, the securities therefor
(except where they are also for other debts or claims not transferred to the transferee), but not
arrears of interest accrued before the transfer;
and, where the property is money or other property yielding income, the interest or
income thereof accruing after the transfer takes effect.
9. Oral transfer. A transfer of property may be made without writing in every
case in which a writing is not expressly required by law.
10. Condition restraining alienation. Where property is transferred subject to a
condition or limitation absolutely restraining the transferee or any person claiming under him
from parting with or disposing of his interest in the property, the condition or limitation is
void, except in the case of a lease where the condition is for the benefit of the lessor or those
claiming under, him: Provided that property may be transferred to or for the benefit of a
woman (not being a Hindu, Muslim or Buddhist), so that she shall not have power during her
marriage to transfer or change the same or her beneficial interest therein.
11. Restriction repugnant to interest created. Where on a transfer or property,
and interest is created absolutely in favour of any person, but the terms of the transfer direct
that such interest shall be applied or enjoyed by him in a particular manner, he shall be
entitled to receive and dispose of such interest as if there were no such direction.
22[Where any such direction has been made in respect of one piece of immovable
property for the purpose of securing the beneficial enjoyment of another piece of such
property, nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect any right which the transferor may
have to enforce such direction or any remedy which he may have in respect of a breach
thereof.]
12. Condition making interest determinable on insolvency or attempted
alienation. Where properly is transferred subject to a condition or limitation making any
interest therein, reserved or given to or for the benefit of any person, to cease on his
becoming insolvent or endeavouring to transfer or dispose of the same, such condition or
limitation is void.
Nothing in this section applies to a condition in a lease for the benefit of the lessor or
those claiming under him.
13. Transfer for benefit of unborn person. Where, on a transfer of property, an
interest therein is created for the benefit of a person not in existence at the date of the
transfer, subject to a prior interest created by the same transfer, the interest created for the
benefit of such person shall not take effect, unless it extends to the whole of the remaining
interest of the transferor in the property.
Illustration
A transfers property which he is the owner to B in trust for A and his intended wife
successively for their lives, and after the death of the survivor, for the eldest son of the
intended marriage for life, and after his death for A's second son. The interest so created for
the benefit of the eldest son does not take effect, because it does not extend to the whole of
A's remaining interest in the property.
14. Rule against perpetuity. No transfer of property can operate to create an
interest which is to take effect after the life-time of one or more persons living at the date of
such transfer, and the minority of some person who shall be in existence at the expiration of
that period, and to whom, if he attains full age, the interest created is to belong.
15. Transfer to class some of whom come under sections 13 and 14. If, on a
transfer of property, an interest therein is created for the benefit of a class of persons with
regard to some of whom such interest fails by reason of any of the Rules contained in
sections 13 and 14, such interest fails 23[in regard to those persons only and not in regard to
the whole class].
24[16. Transfer to take effect on failure of prior interest. Where, by reason of any
of the Rules contained in sections 13 and 14, an interest created for the benefit of a person or
of a class of persons fails in regard to such person or the whole of such class, any interest
created in the .same transaction and intended to take effect after or upon failure of such prior
interest also fails.
17. Direction for accumulation. (1) Where the terms of a transfer of property
direct the income arising from the property shall be accumulated either wholly or in part
during a period longer than:-
(a) the life of the transferor, or
(b) a period of eighteen years from the date of the transfer,
such direction shall, save as hereinafter provided, be void to the extent to
which the period during which the accumulation is directed exceeds the longer
of the aforesaid periods, and at the end of such last-mentioned period the
property and the income thereof shall be disposed of as if the period during
which the accumulation has been directed to be made had elapsed.
(2) This section shall not affect any direction for accumulation for the purpose
of:-
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(i) the payment of the debts of the transferor or any other person taking any
interest under the transfer or,
(ii) the provision of portions for children or remoter issue of the transferor or of
any other person taking any interest under the transfer,' or
(iii) the preservation or maintenance of the property transferred;
and such direction may be made accordingly.
25[18. Transfer in perpetuity for benefit of public. The restrictions in sections 14,
16 and 17 shall not apply in the case of a transfer of property for the benefit for the public in
the advancement of religion, knowledge, commerce, health, safely, or any other object
beneficial to mankind.]
19. Vested interest. Where, on a transfer or property, an interest therein is created
in favour of a person without specifying the time when it is to take effect, or in terms
specifying that it is to take effect forthwith or on the happening of an event which must
happen, such interest is vested, unless a contrary intention appears from the terms of the
transfer.
A vested interest is not defeated by the death of the transferee before he obtains
possession.
Explanations. An intention that an interest shall not be vested is not to be inferred
merely from a provision whereby the enjoyment thereof is postponed, or whereby a prior
interest in the same property is given or reserved to some other person, or whereby income
arising from the property is directed to be accumulated until the time of enjoyment arrives, or
from a provision that if a particular event shall happen the interest shall pass to another
person.
20. When unborn person acquires vested interest on transfer for his benefit.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created for the benefit of a person not
then living, he acquires upon his birth, unless a contrary intention appear from the terms of
the transfer, a vested interest, although he may not be entitled to the enjoyment thereof
immediately on his birth.
21. Contingent interest. Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is
created in favour of a person to take effect only on the happening of a specified uncertain
event, or if a specified uncertain event shall not happen, such person thereby acquires a
contingent interest in the property. Such interest becomes a vested interest, in the former case
on the happening of the event, in the latter case when the happening of the event becomes
impossible.
Exception. - Where, under a transfer of property, a person becomes entitled to an
interest therein upon attainting a particular age, and the transfer also gives to him absolutely
the income to arise from such interest before he reaches that ages, or directs the income or so
much thereof as may be necessary to be applied for his benefit, such interest is not
contingent.
22. Transfer to members of a class who attain a particular age. Where, on a
transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of such members only of a class as
shall attain a particular age, such interest does not vest in any member of the class who has
not attained that age.
23. Transfer contingent on happening of specified uncertain event. Where, on
a transfer of property, an interest therein is to accrue to a specified person if a specified
uncertain event shall happen, and no time is mentioned for the occurrence of that event, the
interest fails unless such event happens before, or at the same time as, the intermediate or
precedent interest cease to exist.
24. Transfer to such of certain persons as survive at some period not
specified. Where, on a transfer of property, and interest therein is to accrue to such of certain
persons as shall be surviving at some period, but the exact period is not specified, the interest
shall go to such of them as shall be alive when the intermediate or precedent interest ceases to
exist, unless a contrary intention appears from the terms of the transfer.
Illustration
A transfers property to B for life, and after his death to C and D, equally to be divided
between them, C dies during the life of B. D survives B. At B's death the property passes to
D.
25. Conditional transfer. An interest created on a transfer of property and
dependent upon a condition fails if the fulfilment of the condition is impossible, or is
forbidden by law, or is of such a nature that, if permitted, it would defeat the provisions of
any law, or is fraudulent, or involves or implies injury to the person or property of another, or
the Court regards it as immoral or opposed to public policy.
Illustrations
(a) A lets a farm to B on condition that he shall walk a hundred miles in an hour.
The lease is void.
(b) A gives Rs. 500 to B on condition that he shall marry A's daughter C. At the
date of the transfer, C was dead. The transfer is void.
(c) A transfers Rs. 500 to B on condition that she shall murder C. The transfer is
void.
(d) A transfer Rs. 500 to his niece C if she will desert her husband. The transfer is
void.
26. Fulfilment of condition precedent. Where the terms of a transfer impose a
condition to be fulfilled before a person can take an interest in the property, the condition
shall be deemed to have been fulfilled if it has been substantially complied with.
Illustration
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(a) A transfers Rs. 5,000 to B on condition that he shall marry with the consent of
C, D and E. B marries with the consent of is deemed to have fulfilled the condition.
(b) A transfer Rs. 5,000 to B on condition that he shall marry with the consent of
C, D and E. B marries without the consent of C, D and E, but obtains their consent after the
marriage. B has not fulfilled the condition.
27. Conditional transfer to one person coupled with transfer to another on
failure of prior disposition. Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in
favour of one person, and by the same transaction an ulterior disposition of the same interest
is made in favour of another, if the prior disposition under the transfer shall fail, the ulterior
disposition shall take effect upon the failure of the prior disposition, although the failure may
not have occurred in the manner contemplated by the transferor.
But, where the intention of the parties to the transaction is that the ulterior disposition
shall take effect, only in the event of the prior disposition failing in a particular manner, the
ulterior disposition shall not take effect unless the prior disposition fails in that manner.
Illustrations
(a) A transfer Rs.500 to B on condition that he shall execute a certain lease within
three months after A's death', and, if he should neglect to do so, to C. B dies in
A's lifetime. The disposition in favour of C takes effect.
(b) A transfer property to his wife, but, in case she should die in his lifetime,
transfers to B that which he had transferred to her. A and his wife perish
together, under circumstances which make it impossible to prove that she died
before him. The disposition in favour of B does not take effect.
28. Ulterior transfer conditional on happening or not happening of specified
event. On a transfer of property an interest therein may be created to accrue to any person
with the condition superadded that in case a specified uncertain event shall happen such
interest shall pass to another person, or that in case a specified uncertain event shall not
happen such interest shall pass to another person. In each case the dispositions are subject to
the rules contained in sections 10, 12, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 27.
29. Fulfillment of condition subsequent. An ulterior disposition of the kind
contemplated by the last preceding section cannot take effect unless the condition is strictly
fulfilled.
Illustration
A transfers Rs. 500 to B, to be paid to him on his attaining his majority or marrying,
with a proviso that, it B dies a minor or marries without C's consent, the Rs. 500 shall go to
D. B marries when only 17 years of age, without C's consent. The transfer to D takes effect.
30. Prior disposition not affected by invalidity of ulterior disposition. If the
ulterior disposition is not valid, the prior disposition is not affected by it.
Illustration
A transfer a farm to B for her life, and if she does not desert her husband, to C. B is
entitled to the farm during her life as if no condition had been inserted.
31. Condition that transfer shall cease to have effect in case specified
uncertain event happens or does not happen. Subject to the provisions of section 12, on a
transfer of property an interest therein may be created with the condition superadded that it
shall cease to exist in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or in case a specified
uncertain event shall not happen.
Illustrations
(a) A transfers a farm to B for his life, with a proviso that, in case B cuts down a
certain wood, the transfer shall cease to have any effect. B cuts down the
wood. He loses his life-interest in the farm.
(b) A transfers a farm to B, provided that, if B shall not go to England within
three years after the date of transfer, his interest in the farm shall cease. B does
not go to England within the term prescribed. His interest in the farm ceases.
32. Such condition must not be invalid. In order that a condition that an interest
shall cease to exist may be valid, it is necessary that the event to which it relates 'be one
which could legally constitute the condition of the creation of an interest.
33. Transfer conditional on performance of act, no time being specified for
performance. Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created subject to a
condition that the person taking it shall perform a certain act, but no time is specified for the
performance of the act, the condition is broken when he renders impossible, permanently or
for an indefinite period, the performance of the act.
34. Transfer conditional on performance of act, time being specified. Where
an act is to be performed by a person either as a condition to be fulfilled before an interest
created on a transfer of property is enjoyed by him, as a condition on the non-fulfilment of
which the interest is to pass from him to another person, and a time is specified for the
performance of the act, if such performance within the specified time is prevented by the
fraud of a person who would be directly benefited by non-fulfilment of the condition, such
further time shall as against him be allowed for performing the act as shall be requisite to
make up for the delay caused by such fraud. But if no time is specified for the performance of
the act, then, if its performance is by the fraud of a person interested in the non-fulfilment of
the condition rendered impossible or indefinitely postponed, the condition shall as against
him be deemed to have been fulfilled.
Election
35. Election when necessary.. Where a person professes to transfer property
which he has no right to transfer, and as part of the same transaction confers any benefit on
the owner of the property, such owner must elect either to confirm such transfer or to dissent
from it; and in the latter case he shall relinquish the benefit so conferred, and the benefit so
relinquished shall revert to the transferor of the representative as if it had not disposed of;
15
Subject nevertheless,
where the transfer is gratuitous, and the transferor has, before the election, died or
otherwise become incapable of making a fresh transfer,
and in all cases where the transfer is for consideration,
to the charge of making good to the disappointed transferee the amount or value of the
property attempted to be transferred to him.
Illustrations
(1) The farm of 26[Ulipur] is the property of C and worth Rs. 800. A by an
instrument of gift professes to transfer it to B giving by the same instrument Rs. 1,000 to C. C
elects to retain the farm. He forfeits the gift of Rs. 1,000.
In the same case, A dies before the election. His representative must out of the Rs.
1,000 pay Rs. 800 to B.
(2) The rule in the first paragraph of this section applies whether the transferor
does or does not believe that which he professes to transfer to be his own.
(3) A person taking no benefit directly under a transaction, but deriving a benefit
under it indirectly, need not elect.
(4) A person who in his one capacity takes a benefit under the transaction may in
another dissent therefrom.
Exception to the last preceding four rules. Where a particular benefit is expressed to
be conferred on the owner of the property which the transferor professes to transfer, and such
benefit is expressed to be in lieu of that property, if such owner claim the property, he must
relinquish the particular benefit, but he is not bound to relinquish any other benefit conferred
upon him by the same transaction.
(5) Acceptance of the benefit by the person on. whom it is conferred constitutes
an election by him to confirm the transfer, if he is aware of his duty to elect and of those
circumstances which would influence the judgment of a reasonable man in making an
election, or if he waives enquiry into the circumstances.
(6) Such knowledge or waiver shall, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, be
presumed, if the person on whom the benefit has been conferred has enjoyed it for two years
without doing any act to express dissent.
(7) Such knowledge or waiver may be inferred from any act of his which renders
it impossible to place the persons interested in the property professed to be transferred in the
same condition as if such act had not been done.
Illustrations
A transfers to B an estate to which C is entitled, and as part of the same transaction
gives C a coal mine. C takes possession of the mine and exhausts it. He has thereby
confirmed the transfer of the estate to B.
(8) If he does not within one year after the date of the transfer signify to the
transferor or his representatives his intention to confirm or to dissent from the transfer, the
transferor or his representatives may, upon the expiration of that period, require him to make
his election; and if he does not comply with such requisition within a reasonable time after he
has received it, he shall be deemed to have elected to confirm transfer.
(9) In case of disability, the election shall be postponed until the disability ceases,
or until the election is made by some competent authority.
Apportionment
36. Apportionment of periodical payments on determination of interest of
person entitled. In the absence of a contract or local usage to the contrary, all rents,
annuities, pensions, dividends and other periodical payments in the nature of income shall,
upon the transfer of the interest of the person entitled to receive such payments, be deemed,
as between the transferor and the transferee, to accrue due from day to day, and to be
apportionable accordingly, but to be payable on the days appointed for the payment thereof.
37. Apportionment of benefit of obligation on severance. When in
consequence of a transfer, property is divided and held in several shares, and thereupon the
benefit of any obligation relating to the property as a whole passes from one to several
owners of the property, the corresponding duty shall, in the absence of the contract to the
contrary amongst the owners, be performed in favour of each of such owners in proportion to
the value of his share in the property, provided that the duty can be severed and that the
severance does not substantially increase the burden of the obligation; but if the duty cannot
be severed, or if the severance would substantially increase the burden of the obligation, the
duty shall be performed for the benefit of such one of the several owners as they shall jointly
designate for the purpose:
Provided that no person on whom the burden of the obligation lies shall be answerable
for failure to discharge it in manner, provided by this section, unless and until he has had
reasonable notice of the severance.
Nothing in this section applies to leases for agricultural purposes unless and until the
27[Provincial Government] by notification in the official Gazette so directs.
Illustrations
(a) A sells to B, C and D a house situate in a village and leased to E at an annual
rent of Rs. 30 and delivery of one fat sheep B, having provided half the
purchase money, and C and D one quarter each. E, having notice of this, must
pay Rs. 15 to B, Rs. 7 to C and Rs. 7 to D, and must deliver the sheep
according to the joint direction of B, C and D.
(b) In the same case, each house in the village being bound to provide ten days'
labour each year on a dyke to prevent inundation, E had agreed as a term of
his lease to perform this work for A, B, C and D severally require E to perform
the ten day's work due on account of the house of each. B is not bound to. do
more than ten day's work in all, according to such direction as B, C and D may
joint in giving.
B. Transfer of Immovable Property
38. Transfer by person authorised only under certain circumstances to
transfer. Where any person, authorised only under circumstances in their nature variable to
dispose of immovable property, transfers such property for consideration, alleging the
existence of such circumstances, they shall as between the transferee on the one part and the
transferor and other person (if any) affected by the transfer on the other part be deemed to
17
have existed, if the transferee, after using reasonable care to ascertain the existence of such
circumstances, has acted in good faith.
Illustration
A, a Hindu widow, whose husband has left collateral heirs alleging that the property
held by her as such is insufficient for her maintenance, agrees for purposes neither religious
nor charitable, to sell a field, part of such property, to B. B, satisfies himself by reasonable
enquiry that the income of the property is insufficient for A's maintenance, and that the sale
of the field is necessary, and acting in good faith, buys the field from A. As between B on the
one part and A and the collateral heirs on the other part, necessity for the sale shall he
deemed to have existed.
39. Transfer where third person is entitled to maintenance. Where a third
person has a right to receive maintenance or a provision for advancement or marriage from
the profits of immovable property, and such property is transferred 28 * * * * the right may
be enforced against the transferee, if he has notice 29[thereof] or if the transfer is gratuitous;
but not against a transferee for consideration and without notice of the right, nor against such
property in his hands.
30[* * * * * * * * * * * * *]
40. Burden of obligation imposing restriction on use of land, or of obligation
annexed to ownership but not amounting to interest or easement. Where, for the more
beneficial enjoyment of his own immovable property, a third person has, independently of
any interest in the immovable property, of another or of any easement thereon, a right to
restrain the enjoyment 31[in a particular manner of the latter property], or
Where third person is entitled to the benefit of an obligation arising out of contract,
and annexed to the ownership of immovable property, but not amounting to an interest
therein or easement thereon,
such right or obligation may be enforced against a transferee with notice thereof or a
gratuitous transferee of the property affected thereby, but not against a transferee for
consideration and without notice of the right or obligation, nor against such property in his
hands.
Illustration.
A contracts to sell 32[Ulipur] to B. While the contract is still in force, he sells [Ulipur]
to C, who, has notice of the contract. B may enforce the contract against C to the same extent
as against A.
41. Transfer by ostensible owner. Where, with the consent, express or implied,
of the persons interested in immovable property, a person is the ostensible owner of such
property and transfers the same for consideration, the transfer shall not be voidable on the
ground that the transferor was not authorised to make it:
Provided that the transferee, after taking reasonable care to ascertain that the
transferor had power to make the transfer, has acted in good faith.
42. Transfer by person having authority to revoke former transfer. Where a
person transfers any immovable property reserving power to revoke the transfer, and
subsequently transfers the property for consideration to another transferee, such transfer
operates in favour of such transferee (subject to any condition attached to' the exercise of the
power) as a revocation of the former transfer to the extent of the power.
Illustration
A lets house to B, and reserves power to revoke the lease if, in the opinion of a
specified surveyor. B should make a use of it detrimental to its value. Afterwards A thinking
that such a use has been made, lets the house to C. The operates as a revocation of B's lease
subject to the opinion of the surveyor as to B's use of the house having been detrimental to its
value.
43. Transfer by unauthorized person who subsequently acquires interest in
property transferred. Where a person 33[fraudulently or] erroneously represents that he is
authorized to transfer certain immovable property and professes to transfer such property for
consideration, such transfer shall, at the option of the transferee, operate on any interest
which the transferor may acquire in such property at any time during which the contract of
transfer subsists.
Noting in this section shall impair the right of transferees in good faith for
consideration without notice of the existence of the said option.
Illustration
A, a Hindu, who has separated from his father B, sell to C three fields, X, Y and Z,
representing that A is authorised to transfer the same. Of these fields Z does not belong to A,
in having been retained by B on the partition; but on B's dying A as heir, obtains Z. C, not
having rescinded the contract of sale, may require A to deliver Z to him.
44. Transfer by one co-owner. Where one of two or more co-owners of
immovable property legally competent in that behalf transfers his share of such property or
any interest therein, the transferee acquires, as to such share or interest, and so far as is
necessary to give effect to the common or part enjoyment of the property, and to enforce a
partition of the same, but subject to the conditions and liabilities affecting, at the date of the
transfer, the share or interest so transferred.
Where the transferee of a share of a dwelling-house belonging to an undivided family
is not a member of the family nothing in this section shall be deemed to entitle him to joint
possession or other common or part enjoyment of the house.
45. Joint transfer for consideration. Where immovable property is transferred
for consideration to two or more persons, and such consideration is paid out of a fund
belonging to them in common, they are in the absence of a contract to the contrary,
respectively entitled to interests in such property identical, as nearly as may be, with the
interests to which they were respectively entitled in the fund; and, where such consideration
is paid out of separate funds belonging to them respectively, they are, in the absence of a
contract to the contrary, respectively entitled to interest in such property in proportion to the
shares of the consideration which they respectively advanced.
19
In the absence of evidence as to the interests in the fund to which they were
respectively entitled, or as to the shares which they respectively advanced, such person shall
be presumed to be equally interested in the property.
46. Transfer for consideration by persons having distinct interests. Where
immovable properly is transferred for .consideration by persons having distinct interest
therein, the transferors are, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, entitled to share in the
consideration equally, where their interests in the property were of equal value, and, where
such interests were of unequal value, proportionately to the value of their respective interests.
Illustrations
(a) A, owning a moiety, and B and C each a quarter share, of mauza 34[Ulipur],
exchange an eighth share of that mauza for a quarter share of a mauza 35[Mithapukur]. There
being no agreement to the contrary, A is entitled to an eighth share in [Mithapukur], and B
and C each to a sixteenth share in that mauza.
(b) A being entitled to a life-interest in mauza 36[Jalkothi] and B and C, to the
reversion, sell the mauza of Rs. 1,000. A's life-interest is ascertained to be worth Rs. 600, the
reversion Rs. 400. A is entitled to receive Rs. 600 out of the purchase-money, B and C to
receive Rs. 400.
47. Transfer by co-owners of share in common property. Where several coowners
of immovable property transfer a share therein without specifying that the transfer is
to take effect on any particular share or shares of the transferors, the transfer, as among such
transferors, takes effect on such shares equally where the shares were equal, and, where they
were unequal, proportionately to the extent of such shares.
Illustration
A, the owner of an eight-anna share and B and C, each the owner of a four-anna share,
in the mauza 37[Ulipur]; transfer a two-anna share in the mauza to D, without specifying
from which of their several shares the transfer is made. To give effect to the transfer one-anna
share is taken from the share of A, and half an anna share from each of the shares of B and C.
48. Priority of rights created by transfer. Where a person purports to create by
transfer at different times rights in or over the same immovable property, and such rights
cannot all exist or be exercised to their full extent together, each later created right shall, in
the absence of a special contract or reservation binding the earlier transferees, be subject to
the rights previously created.
49. Transferee's right under policy. Where immovable property is transferred
for consideration, and such property or any part thereof is at the date of the transfer insured
against loss or damage by fire, the transferee, in case of such loss or damage, may, in the
absence of a contract to the contrary, require any money which the transferor actually
receives under the policy, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to be applied in reinstating
the property.
50. Rent bona fide paid to holder under defective title. No person shall be
chargeable with any rents or profits of any immovable property, which he has in good faith or
delivered to any person of whom he in good faith held such property, notwithstanding it may
afterwards appear that the person to whom such payment or delivery was made had no right
to receive such rents or profits.
Illustration
A lets a field to B at a rent of Rs. 50, and then transfers the field to C. B, having no
notice of the transfer in good faith pays the rent to A, B is not chargeable with the rent so
paid.
51. Improvements made by bona fide holders under defective titles. When the
transferee of immovable property makes any improvement on the property, believing in good
faith that he is absolutely entitled thereto, and he is subsequently evicted therefrom by any
person having a better title, the transferee has a right to require the person causing the
eviction either to have the value of the improvement estimated and paid or secured to the
transferee, or to sell his interest in the property to the transferee at the then market value
thereof, irrespective of the value of such improvement.
The amount to be paid or secured in respect of such improvement shall be the
estimated value thereof at the time of the eviction.
When, under the circumstances aforesaid, the transferee has planted or sown on the
property crops which are growing when he is evicted therefrom, he is entitled to such crops
and to free ingress and egress to gather and carry them.
38[52. Transfer of property pending suit relating thereto. During the
39[pendency] in any Court having authority in 40[Pakistan], or established beyond the limits
of 41[Pakistan] by 42[the 43[Federal Government] 44* * *, 45[any] suit or
proceeding 46[which is not collusive and] in which any right to immovable property is
directly and Specifically in question, the property cannot be transferred to otherwise dealt
with by any party to the suit or proceeding so as to affect the rights of any other party thereto
under decree or order which may be made therein, except under the authority of the Court
and on such terms as it may impose.
47[Explanation. -For the purpose this section, the pendency of a suit or proceeding
shall be deemed to commence from the date of the presentation of the plaint or the institution
of the proceeding in a Court of competent jurisdiction and to continue until the suit or
proceeding has been disposed of by a final decree or order and complete satisfaction of
discharge of such decree or order has been obtained, or has become unobtainable by reason of
the expiration of any period of limitation prescribed for the execution thereof by any law for
the time being in force.]
48[53. Fraudulent transfer. (1) Every transfer of immovable property made with
intent to defeat or delay the creditors of the transferor shall be voidable at the option of any
creditor or delayed.
Nothing in this sub-section shall impair the rights of a transferee in good faith and for
consideration.
21
Nothing in this sub-section shall affect any law for the time being in force relating to
insolvency.
A suit instituted by a creditor (which term includes a decree-holder whether he has or
has not applied for execution of his decree) to avoid a transfer on the ground that it has been
made with intent to defeat or delay the creditors of the transferor, shall be instituted on behalf
of, or for the benefit of, all the creditors.
(2) Every transfer of immovable property made without consideration with intent to
defraud a subsequent transferee shall be voidable at the option of such transferee.
For the purposes of this sub-section, no transfer made without consideration shall be
deemed to have been made with intent to defraud by reason only that a subsequent transfer
for consideration was made.]
49[53-A. Part performance. Where any person contracts to transfer for
consideration any immovable property by writing signed by him or on his behalf from which
the terms necessary to constitute the transfer can be ascertained with reasonable certainty,
and the transferee has performed or is willing to perform his part of the contract, taken
possession of the property or any part thereof, or the transferee, being already in possession,
continues in possession in part performance of the contract and has done some act in
furtherance of the contract,
and the transferee has performed or is willing to perform his part of the contract,
then, notwithstanding that the contract, though required to be registered, has not been
registered, or, where there is an instrument of transfer, that the transfer has not been
completed in the manner prescribed therefor by the law for the time being in force, the
transferor or any person claiming under him shall be debarred from enforcing against the
transferee and persons claiming under him any right in respect of the property of which the
transferee has taken or continued in possession, other than a right expressly provided by me
terms of the contract:
Provided that nothing in this section shall affect the rights of a transferee for -
consideration who has no notice of the contract or of the part performance thereof.]
CHAPTER III
OF SALES OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
54. “Sale Defined”. “Sale” is a transfer of ownership in exchange for a price paid
or promised or part paid and part promised.
Sale how made. Such transfer, in the case of tangible immovable property of the
value of one hundred rupees and upwards, or in the case of a reversion or other intangible
thing, can be made only by a registered instrument.
50In the case of tangible immovable property, of a value less than one hundred
rupees, such transfer may be made either by a registered instrument or by delivery of the
property.
Delivery of tangible immovable property takes place when the seller places the buyer,
or such person as he directs in possession of the property.
Contract for sale-A contract for the sale of immovable property is a contract that a
sale of such property shall take place on terms settled between the parties.
It does not, of itself, create any interest in or charge on such property.
55. Rights and liabilities of buyer and seller. In the absence of a contract to the
contrary, the buyer and the seller of immovable property respectively are subject to the
liabilities, and have the rights, mentioned in the rules next following, or such of them as are
applicable to the property sold:-
(1) The seller is bound:-
(a) to disclose to buyer any material defect in the property 51[or in the seller's title
thereto] of which the seller is, and the buyer is not, aware, and which the buyer
could not with ordinary care discover;
(b) to produce to the buyer on his request for examination all documents of title
relating to the property which are in the seller's possession or power;
(c) to answer to the best of his information all relevant questions put to him by the
buyer in respect to the property or the title thereto;
(d) on payment or tender of the amount due in respect of the price, to execute a
proper conveyance of the property when the buyer tenders it to him for
execution at a proper time and place;
(e) between the date of the contract of sale and the delivery of the property, to
take as much care of the property and all documents of title relating thereto
which are in his possession as an owner of ordinary prudence would take of
such property and documents;
(f) to give, being so required, the buyer or such person as he directs, such
possession of the property as its nature admits;
(g) to pay all public charges and rent accrued due in respect of the property up to
the date of the sale, the interest on all incumbrances on such property due on
such date, and except where the property is sold subject to incumbrances, to
discharge all incumbrances on the property then existing.
23
(2) The seller shall be deemed to contract with the buyer that the interest which
the seller professes to transfer to the buyer, subsists and that he has power to transfer the
same:
Provided that, there the sale is made by a person in a fiduciary character, he shall be
deemed to contract with the buyer that the seller has done no act whereby the property is
incumbered or whereby he is hindered from transferring it.
The benefit of the contract mentioned in this Rule shall be annexed to, and shall go
with, the interest of the transferee as such, and may be enforced by every person in whom
that interest is for the whole or any part thereof from time to time vested.
(3) Where the whole of purchase-money has been paid to the seller, he is also
bound to deliver to the buyer all documents of title relating to the property which are in the
seller's possession or power:
Provided that, (a) where the seller retains any part of the property comprised in such
documents he is entitled to retain them all, and (b) where the whole of such property is sold
to different buyers, the buyer of the lot of greatest value is entitled to such documents. But in
case (a) the seller, and in case (b) the buyer, of the lot of greatest value, is bound, upon every
reasonable request by the buyer, or by any of the other buyers, as the case may be, and at the
cost of the person making the request, to produce the said documents and furnish such true
copies thereof or extracts therefrom as he may require; and in the mean time, the seller, or the
buyer of the lot of greatest value, as the case may be, shall keep the said documents safe,
uncancelled and undefaced, unless prevented from so doing by fire or other inevitable
accident.
(4) The seller is entitled:--
(a) to the rents and profits of the property till the ownership thereof passes to the
buyer;
(b) where the ownership of the property has passed to the buyer before payment
of the whole of the purchase-money, to a charge upon the property in the
hands of the buyer, 52[any transferee without consideration or any transferee
with notice of the non-payment], for the amount of the purchase-money, or
any part thereof remaining unpaid, and for interest on such amount or part
[from the date on which possession has been delivered].
(5) The buyer is bound:-
(a) to disclose to the seller any fact as to the nature or extent of the seller's
interest in the property of which the buyer is aware but of which he has reason
to believe that the seller is not aware, and which materially increases the value
of such interest;
(b) to pay or tender, at the time and place of completing the sale, the purchasemoney
to the seller or such person as he directs: provided that, where the
property is sold free from incumbrances, the buyer may retain, out of the
purchase-money, the amount of any incumbrances on the property existing at
the date of the sale, and shall pay the amount so retained to the persons
entitled thereto;
(c) where the ownership of the property has 'passed to the buyer, to bear any loss
arising from the destruction, injury or decrease in value of the property not
caused by the seller;
(d) where the ownership of the property has passed to the buyer, as between
himself and seller, to pay all public charges and rent which may become
payable in respect of the property, the principal moneys due on any
incumbrances subject to which the property is sold, and the interest-thereon
afterwards accruing due.
(6) The buyer is entitled:-
(a) where the ownership of the property has passed to him, to the benefit of any
improvement in, or increase in value of, the property, and to the rents and
profits thereof;
(b) unless he has improperly declined to accept delivery of the property, to a
charge on the property, as against the seller and all persons claiming under
him, 53* * * to the extent of the seller's, interest in the
property for the amount of any purchase-money properly paid by the buyer, in
anticipation of the delivery and for interest on such amount; and, when he
properly declines to accept the delivery, also for the earnest (if any) and for
the costs (if any) awarded to him of a suit to compel specific performance of
the contract or to obtain a decree for its rescission.
An omission to make such disclosures as are mentioned in this section, paragraph (1),
clause (a), and paragraph (5), clause (a), is fraudulent.
54[56. Marshalling by subsequent purchaser. If the owner of two or more
properties mortgages them to one person and then sells one or more of the properties to
another person, the buyer is, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, entitled to have the
mortgage-debt satisfied out of the property or properties not sold to him, so far as the same
will extend, but not so as to prejudice the rights of the mortgagee or persons claiming under
him or of any other person who has for consideration acquired an interest in any of the
properties.]
Discharge of Incumbrances on Sale
57. Provision by Court for incumbrance and sale freed therefrom, (a) Where
immovable property subject to any
incumbrance, whether immediately payable or not, is sold by the Court or in execution of a
decree, or out of Court, the Court may, if it thinks fit on the application of any party to the
sale, direct or allow payment into Court:-
(1) in case of an annual or monthly sum charged on the property, or of a capital
sum charged on a determinable interest in the property--of such amount as, when invested in
securities of the 55[Federal Government], the Court considers will be sufficient, by means of
the interest thereof, to keep down or otherwise provide for that charge; and
(2) in any other case of a capital sum charged on the property--of the amount
sufficient to meet the incumbrance and any interest due thereon.
But in either case there shall also be paid into Court such additional amount as the
Court considers will be sufficient to meet the contingency of further costs, expenses and
interest and any other contingency, except depreciation of investments, not .exceeding onetenth
part of the original amount to be paid in, unless the Court for special reasons (which it
shall record) thinks fit to require a larger additional amount.
25
(b) Thereupon the Court may, if it thinks fit, and after notice to the incumbrancer,
unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, thinks fit to dispense with such notice,
declare the property to be freed from the incumbrance, and make any order for conveyance,
or vesting order, proper for giving effect to the sale, and give directions for the retention and
investment of the money in Court.
(c) After notice served on the persons interested in or entitled to the money or
fund in Court, the Court may direct payment or transfer thereof to the persons entitled to
receive or give a discharge for the same, and generally may give directions respecting the
application or distribution of the capital or income thereof.
(d) An appeal shall lie from any declaration, order or direction under this section
as if the same were a decree.
(e) In this section “Court” means (1) a High Court in the exercise of the
ordinary or extraordinary original civil jurisdiction, (2) the Court of a District Judge within
the local limits of whose jurisdiction the property or any part thereof is situate, (3) any other
Court which the [Provincial Government] may, from time to time, by notification in the
official Gazette, declare to be competent to exercise the jurisdiction conferred by this section.
CHAPTER IV
OF MORTGAGES OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
AND CHARGES
5658. 'Mortgage' 'mortgagor' 'mortgagee,' 'mortgage-money' and
'mortgage' defined, (a) A mortgage is the transfer of an interest in specific immovable
property for the purpose of securing the payment of money advanced or to be advanced by
way of loan, an existing or future debt or the performance of an engagement which may give
rise to a pecuniary liability.
The transferor is called a mortgagor, the transferee a mortgagee; the principal money
and interest of which payment is secured for the time being are called the mortgage-money
and the instrument (if any) by which the transfer is effected is called a mortgage-deed.
(b) Simple mortgage. Where, without delivering possession of the mortgaged
property, the mortgagor binds himself personally to pay the mortgage money, and agrees
expressly or impliedly, that, in the event of his failing to pay according to his contract, the
mortgagee shall have a right to cause the mortgaged property to be sold and the proceeds of
sale to be applied, so far as may be necessary, in payment of the mortgage-money, the
transaction is called a simple mortgage and the mortgagee a simple mortgagee.
(c) Mortgage by conditional sale. Where the mortgagor ostensibly sells the
mortgaged property:
on condition that on default of payment of the mortgage money on a certain date the
sale shall become absolute; or
on condition not on such payment being made the sale shall become void, or
on condition that on such payment being made the buyer shall transfer the property to
the seller,
the transaction is called a mortgage by conditional sale and the mortgagee a
mortgagee by conditional sale:
57[Provided that no such transaction shall be deemed to be a mortgage, unless the
condition is embodied in the document which effects or purports to effect the sale;]
(d) Usufructurary mortgage. Where the mortgagor delivers possession 58[or
expressly or by implication binds himself to deliver possession] of the mortgaged property to
mortgagee, and authorizes him to retain such possession until payment of the mortgageemoney,
and to receive the rents and profits accruing from the property or any part of such
rents and profits and to appropriate the same in lieu of interest, or in payment of the
mortgage-money, or part in lieu of interest [or] partly in payment of the mortgage-money, the
transaction is called a usufructuary mortgage and the mortgagee a usufructuary mortgagee.
(e) English mortgage. Where the mortgagor binds himself to repay the mortgagemoney
on a certain date, and transfers the mortgaged property absolutely to the mortgagee,
but subject to a proviso that he will re-transfer it to the mortgagor upon payment of the
mortgage-money as agreed, the transaction is called an English mortgage.
59[(f) Mortgage by deposit of tine-deeds. Where a person in 60[the town of]
Karachi, 61* * * and in any other town which the 62[Provincial
Government concerned] may, by notification in the 63[official Gazette], specify in this
behalf, delivers to a creditor or his agent documents of title to immovable property, with
27
intent to create a security thereon, the transaction is called a mortgage by deposit of titledeeds.
(g) Anomalous mortgage. A mortgage which is not a simple mortgage, a
mortgage by conditional sale, a usufructuary mortgage, an English mortgage or a mortgage
by deposit of title-deeds within the meaning of this section is called an anomalous mortgage.]
6459. Mortgage when to be by assurance. Where the principal money secured is
one hundred rupees or upwards, a mortgage 65[other than a mortgage by deposit of titledeeds]
can be effected only by the registered instrument signed by the mortgagor and attested
by at least two witnesses.
Where the principal money secured is less than one hundred rupees, a mortgage may
be effected either by 66[a registered instrument] signed and attested as aforesaid, or (except
in the case of a simple mortgage) by delivery of the property.
67* * * * * * * * * * * *
68[59-A. References to mortgagors and mortgagees to include persons
deriving title from them. Unless otherwise expressly provided, references in this Chapter to
mortgagors and mortgagees shall be deemed to include references to persons deriving title
from them respectively.]
Rights and Liabilities of Mortgagor
60. Right of mortgagor to redeem.-At any time after the principal money has
become 69[due], the mortgagor has a right, on payment or tender, at a proper time and place,
of the mortgagee-money, to require the mortgage; (a) to deliver 70[to the mortgagor the
mortgage-deed and all documents relating to the mortgaged property which are in the
possession or power of the mortgagee], (b) where the mortgagee is in possession of the
mortgaged property, to deliver possession thereof to mortgagor, and (c) at the cost of the
mortgagor either to re-transfer the mortgaged property to him or to such third person as he
may direct, or to execute and (where the mortgage has been effected by a registered
instrument) to have registered an acknowledgment in writing that any right in derogation of
his interest transferred to the mortgagee has been extinguished:
Provided that the right conferred by this section has not been extinguished by the act
of the parties or by 71[decree] of a Court.
The right conferred by this section is called a right to redeem and a suit to enforce it is
called a suit for redemption.
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to render invalid any provision to the effect
that, if the time fixed for payment of the principal money has been allowed to pass or no such
time has been fixed, the mortgagee shall be entitled to reasonable notice before payment of
tender of such money.
Redemption of portion of mortgaged property. Nothing in this section shall entitle a
person interested in a share only of the mortgaged property to redeem his own share only, on
payment of a proportionate part of the amount remaining due on the mortgage, except
72[only] where a mortgagee, or, if there are more mortgagees than one, all such mortgagees,
has or have acquired, in whole or in part, the share of a mortgagor.
73[60-A Obligation to transfer to third party instead of re-transference to
mortgagor. (1) Where a mortgagor is entitled to redemption, then, on the fulfilment of any
conditions on the fulfilment of which he would be entitled to require a re-transfer, he may
require the mortgagee, instead of re-transferring the property, to assign the mortgage-debt and
transfer the mortgaged property to such third person as the mortgagor may direct; and the
mortgagee shall be bound to assign and transfer accordingly.
(2) The rights conferred by this section belong to and may be enforced by the
mortgagor or by any encumbrancer notwithstanding an intermediate encumbrance; but the
requisition of any encumbrancer shall prevail over a requisition of the mortgagor and, as
between
encumbrancers, the requisition of a prior encumbrancer shall prevail over that of a subsequent
encumbrancer.
(3) The provisions of this section do not apply in the case of a mortgagee who is or
has been in possession.
60-B Right to inspection and production of documents. A mortgagor, as long as
his right of redemption subsists, shall be entitled at all reasonable times at his request and at
his own cost, and on payment of the mortgagee's costs and expenses in this behalf, to inspect
and make copies or abstract, of, or extracts from, documents of title relating to the mortgaged
property which are in the custody or power of the mortgagee.]
74[61. Right to redeem separately or simultaneously. A mortgagor, who has
executed two or more mortgages in favour of the same mortgagee shall, in the absence of a
contract to the contrary, when the principal money of any two or more of the mortgages has
become due, be entitled to redeem any one such mortgage separately, or any two or more of
such mortgages together.]
62. Right of usufructuary mortgagor to recover possession. In the case of a
usufructuary mortgage, the mortgagor has right to recover possession of the property
75[together with the mortgage-deed and all documents relating to the mortgaged property
which are in the possession or power of the mortgagee],-
(a) where the mortgagee is authorized to pay himself the mortgage-money from
the rents and profits of the property. When such money is paid;
(b) where the mortgagee is authorized to pay himself from such rents and profits
76[or any part thereof a part only of the mortgage-money]-- when the term, if
any, prescribed for the payment of the mortgage-money has expired and the
mortgagor pays or tenders to the mortgagee 77[the mortgage-money or the
balance thereof] or deposits it in Court as hereinafter provided.
63. Accession to mortgaged property. Where mortgaged property in possession
of the mortgagee has, during the continuance of the mortgage, received any accession, the
mortgagor, upon redemption, shall, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, be entitled as
against the mortgagee to such accession.
29
Accession acquired in virtue of transferred ownership. Where such accession has
been acquired at the expense of the mortgagee, and is capable of separate possession or
enjoyment without detriment to the principal property, the mortgagor desiring to take the
accession must pay to the mortgagee the expense of acquiring it. If such separate possession
or enjoyment is not possible, the accession must be delivered with the property; the
mortgagor being liable, in the case of an acquisition necessary to preserve the property from
destruction, forfeiture or sale; or made with his assent, to pay the proper cost thereof, as an
addition to the principal money, 78[with interest at the same rate as is payable on the
principal, where no such rate is fixed, at the rate of nine per cent per annum].
In the case last mentioned the profits, if any, arising from the accession shall be
credited to the mortgagor.
Where the mortgage is usufructuary and the accession has been acquired at the
expense of the mortgagee, the profits, if any, arising from the accession shall, in the absence
of a contract to the contrary, be set off against interest, if any, payable on the money so
expended.
79[63-A. Improvements to mortgaged property. (1) Where mortgaged
property in possession of the mortgagee has during the continuance of the mortgage, been
improved, the mortgagor, upon redemption, shall, in the absence of a contract to the contrary,
be entitled to the improvement; and the mortgagor shall not, save only in cases provided for
in sub-section (2), be liable to pay the cost thereof.
(2) Where any such improvement was effected at the cost of the mortgagee and
was necessary to preserve the property from destruction or deterioration or was necessary to
prevent the security from becoming insufficient, or was made in compliance with the lawful
order of any public servant or public authority, the mortgagor shall, in the absence of a
contract to the contrary, be liable to pay the proper cost thereof as an addition to the principal
money with interest at the same rate as is payable on the principal, or, where no such rate is
fixed, at the rate of nine per cent per annum, and the profits, if any, accruing by reason of the
improvement shall be credited to the mortgagor.]
64. Renewal of mortgaged lease. Where the mortgaged property is a lease 80*
* * and the mortgagee obtains a renewal of the lease, the mortgagor, upon
redemption, shall, in the absence of a contract by him to the contrary, have the benefit of the
new lease.
65. Implied contracts by mortgagor. In the absence of a contract to the contrary,
the mortgagee shall be deemed to contract with the mortgagee:-
(a) that the interest which the mortgagor professes to transfer to the mortgagor
subsists, and the mortgagor has power to transfer the same;
(b) that the mortgagor will defend, or if the mortgagee be in the possession of the
mortgaged property, enable him to defend, the mortgagor, title thereto ;
(c) that the mortgagor will, so long as the mortgagee is not m possession of the
mortgaged property, pay all, public charges accruing due in respect of the
property ;
(d) and, where the mortgaged property is a lease 81* * * that the rent
payable under the lease, the conditions contained therein, and the contracts
binding on the lessee have been paid, performed and observed down to the
commencement of the mortgage: and that the mortgagor will, so long as the
security exists and the mortgagee is not in possession of the mortgaged
property, pay the rent reserved by the lease, or, if the lease be renewed, the
renewed lease, perform the conditions contained therein and observe the
contracts binding on lessee, and indemnify the mortgagee against all claims
sustained by reason of the non-payment of the said rent or the nonperformance
or non-observance of the said conditions and contracts ;
(e) and, where the mortgage is a second or subsequent incumbrance on the
property, that the mortgagor will pay the interest from time to time accruing
due on such prior incumbrance as and when it becomes due, and will at the
proper time discharge the principal money due on such prior incumbrance.
82* * * * * * * * * * *
The benefit of the contracts mentioned in this section shall be annexed to and shall go
with the interest of the mortgagee as such, and may be enforced by every person in whom
that interest is for the whole or any part thereof from time to time vested.
83[65A. Mortgagor's power to lease. (1) Subject to the provisions of subsection
(2) a mortgagor, while lawfully in possession of the mortgaged property, shall have
power to make leases thereof which shall be binding on the mortgagee.
(2) (a) Every such lease shall be such as would be made in the ordinary course of
management of the property concerned, and in accordance with any local law,
custom or usage.
(b) Every such lease shall reserve the best rent that can reasonably be obtained,
and no premium shall be paid or promised and no rent shall be payable in
advance.
(c) No such lease shall contain a covenant for renewal.
(d) Every such lease shall take effect from a date not later than six months from
the date on which it is made.
(e) In the case of a lease of buildings, whether leased with or without the land on
which they stand, the duration of the lease shall in no case exceed three years,
and the lease shall contain a covenant for payment of the rent and a condition
of re-entry on the rent not being paid within a time therein specified.
(3) The provisions of sub-section (1) apply only if and as far as a contrary
intention is not expressed in the mortgage-deed; and the provisions of sub-section (2) may be
varied or extended by the mortgage-deed and, as so varied and extended, shall, as far as may
be, operate in like manner and with all like incidents, effects and consequences, as if such
variations or extensions were contained in that sub-section.]
66. Waste by mortgagor in possession. A mortgagor in possession of the
mortgaged property is not liable to the mortgagee for allowing the property to deteriorate; but
he must not commit any act which is destructive or permanently injurious thereto, if the
security is insufficient or will be rendered insufficient by such act.
31
Explanation. A security is insufficient within the meaning of this section unless the
value of the mortgaged property exceeds by one-third, or, if consisting of buildings, exceeds
by one-half, the amount for the time being due on the mortgage.
Rights and Liabilities of Mortgagee
67. Right to foreclosure or sale. In me absence of a contract to contrary, the
mortgagee has at any time after the mortgage-money has become 84[due] to him, and before
a decree has been made for the redemption of the mortgaged property, or the mortgagemoney
has been paid or deposited as hereinafter provided, a right to obtain from the Court a
decree that the mortgagor shall be absolutely debarred of his right to redeem the property, or
85[a decree] that the property be sold.
A suit to obtain 85[a decree] that a mortgagor shall be absolutely debarred of his right
to redeem the mortgaged property is called a suit for foreclosure.
Nothing in this section shall be deemed:
86[(a) to authorize any mortgagee, other than a mortgagee by conditional sale or a
mortgagee under an anomalous mortgage by the terms of which he is entitled
to foreclose, to institute a suit for foreclosure, or an usufructuary mortgagee as
such or mortgagee by conditional sale as such, to institute a suit for sale ; or]
(b) to authorize a mortgagor who holds the mortgagee's right as his trustee or legal
representative, and who may sue for a sale of the property, to institute a suit
for foreclosure ; or
(c) to authorize the mortgagee of a railway, canal or other work in the
maintenance of which the public are interested, to institute a suit for
foreclosure or sale ; or
(d) to authorize a person interested in part only of the mortgage-money to
institute a suit relating only to a corresponding part of the mortgaged property,
unless the mortgagees have, with the consent of the mortgagor, severed their
interests under the mortgage.
87[67-A. Mortgagee when bound to bring one suit on several mortgages. A
mortgagee who holds two or more mortgages executed by the same mortgagor in respect of
each of which he had a right to obtain the same kind of decree under section 67, and who sues
to obtain such decree on anyone of the mortgages, shall, in the absence of a contract to the
contrary, be bound to sue on all the mortgages in respect of which the mortgage-money has
become due.]
88[68. Right to sue for mortgage-money. (1) The mortgagee has a right to sue for
the mortgage-money in the following cases and no others, namely:-
(a) where the mortgagor binds himself to repay the same;
(b) where by any cause other than the wrongful act or default of the mortgagor or
mortgagee, the mortgaged property is wholly or partially destroyed or the
security is rendered insufficient within the meaning of section 66, and the
mortgagee has given the mortgagor a reasonable opportunity of providing
further security enough to render the whole security sufficient, and the
mortgagor has failed to do so;
(c) where the mortgagee is deprived of the whole or part of his security by or in
consequence of the wrongful act or default of the mortgagor;
(d) where the mortgagee being entitled to possession of the mortgaged property,
the mortgagor fails to deliver the same to him, or to secure the possession
thereof to him without disturbance by the mortgagor or any person claiming
under a title superior to that of the mortgagor:
Provided that, in the case referred to in the clause (a), transferee from the mortgagor
or from his legal representative shall not be liable to be sued for the mortgage-money.
(2) Where a suit is brought under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1), the
Court may, at its discretion, stay the suit and all proceedings therein, notwithstanding any
contract to the contrary, until the mortgagee has exhausted all his available remedies against
the mortgaged property or what remains of it, unless the mortgagee abandons his security
and, if necessary, re-transfers the mortgaged property.]
69. Power of sale when valid. 89[(1)]90[ 91* * * [A] mortgagee,
or any person acting on his behalf, shall, subject to the provisions of this section, have power
to sell or concur in selling the mortgaged property, or any part thereof, in default of payment
of the mortgage-money, without the intervention of the Court, in the following cases and in
no others, namely:-]
(a) where the mortgage is an English mortgage, and neither the mortgagor nor the
mortgagee is a Hindu, 92[Muslim] or Buddhist 93[or a member of any other
race, sect, tribe or class from time to time specified in this behalf by 94[the
Provincial Government in the 95[official Gazette]];
(b) where 96[a power of sale without the intervention of the Court is expressly
conferred on the mortgagee by the mortgage deed] and the mortgagee is 97[the
Government] 98[or a Scheduled Bank as defined in section 2 of the State Bank
of Pakistan Act, 1956] ;
(c) where 99[a power of sale without the intervention of the Court is expressly
conferred on the mortgagee by the mortgage-deed and] the mortgaged
property or any part thereof 100[was, on the date of the execution of the
mortgage-deed], situate within the 101[town of] Karachi, 102* * * or in any
other town 103[or area] which the 104[Provincial Government] may, by
notification in the 105[official Gazette], specify in this behalf.
106[(2)] 107[A power under sub-section (1) shall not] be exerciser
unless and until:.
108[(a)] notice in writing requiring payment of the principal money has
been served on the mortgagor, or on one of several mortgagors, and default
has been made in payment of the principal money, or of part thereof, for three
months after such service ; or
109[(b)] some interest under the mortgage amounting at least to five
hundred rupees is in arrear and unpaid for three months after becoming due:
110[ * * *]
33
111[Provided that the power of a Scheduled Bank under clause (b) of sub-section (1)
shall further be subject to such conditions as may be prescribed in this behalf by notification
in the official Gazette by the 112[Federal Government] in consultation with the State Bank of
Pakistan]
113[(3)] When a sale has been made in professed exercise of such a power, the
title of the purchaser shall not be impeachable on the ground that no case had arisen to
authorise the sale, or that due notice was not given or that the power was otherwise
improperly or irregularly exercised; but any person damnified by an unauthorised or improper
or irregular exercise of the power shall have his remedy in damages against the person
exercising the power.
114[(4)] The money which is received by the mortgagee, arising from the sale,
after discharge of prior incumbrances, if any, to which the sale is not made subject, or after
payment into Court under section 57 of a sum to meet any prior incumbrance, shall, in the
absence of a contract to the contrary, be held by him, in trust to be applied by him first, in
payment of all costs, charges and expenses properly incurred by him as incident to the sale or
any attempted sale; and, secondly, in discharge of the mortgage-money and costs and other
money, if any, due under the mortgage ; and the residue of the money so received shall be
paid to the person entitled to the mortgaged property, or authorized to give receipts for the
proceeds of the sale thereof.
115* * * * * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * * * *
116[69-A. Appointment of receiver. (1) A mortgagee having the right to
exercise a power of sale under section 69 shall, subject, to the provisions of sub-section (2),
be entitled to appoint, by writing signed by him or on his behalf, a receiver of the income of
the mortgaged property or any part thereof.
(2) Any person who has been named in the mortgage-deed and is willing and able
to act as receiver may be appointed by the mortgagee.
If no person has been so named, or if all persons named are unable or unwilling to act,
or are dead, the mortgagee may appoint any person to whose appointment the mortgagor
agrees; failing such agreement, the mortgagee shall be entitled to apply to the Court for the
appointment of a receiver, and any person appointed by the Court shall be deemed to have
been duly appointed by the mortgagee.
A receiver may at any time be removed by writing signed by or on behalf of the
mortgagee and the mortgagor, or by the Court on application made by either party and on due
cause shown.
A vacancy In the office of receiver may be filled .in accordance with the provisions of
this sub-section.
(3) A receiver appointed under the powers conferred by this section shall be
deemed to be the agent of the mortgagor; and the mortgagor shall be solely responsible for
the receiver's acts or defaults, unless the mortgage-deed otherwise provides or unless such
acts or defaults are due to the improper intervention of the mortgagee.
(4) The receiver shall-have power to demand and recover all the income of which
he is appointed receiver, by suit, execution or otherwise, in the name either of the mortgagor
or of the mortgagee to the full extent of the interest which the mortgagor could dispose of,
and give valid receipts accordingly for the same, and to exercise any powers which may have
been delegated to him by the mortgagee in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(5) A person paying money to the receiver shall not be concerned to inquire if the
appointment of the receiver was valid or not.
(6) The receiver shall be entitled to retain out of any money received by him for
his remuneration, and in satisfaction of all costs, charges, and expenses incurred by him as
receiver, a commission at such rate not exceeding five per cent on the gross amount of all
money received as is specified in his appointment, and, if no rate is so specified then at the
rate of five per cent on that gross amount, or at such other rate as the Court thinks fit to allow,
on application made by him for the purpose.
(7) The receiver shall, if so directed in writing by the mortgagee, insure to the
extent, if any, to which the mortgagee might have insured, and keep insured against loss or
damage by fire, out of the money received by him, the mortgaged property or any part thereof
being of an insurable nature.
(8) Subject to the provisions of this Act as to the application of insurance money,
the receiver shall apply all money received by him as follows, namely:-
(i) in discharge of all rents, taxes, land revenue, rates and outgoings whatever
affecting the mortgaged property;
(ii) in keeping down all annual sums or other payments, and the interest on all
principal sums, having priority to the mortgage in right whereof he is receiver
;
(iii) in payment of his commission, and of the premiums on fire, life or other
insurances, if any, properly payable under the mortgage-deed or under this
Act, and the cost of executing necessary or proper repairs directed in writing
by the mortgagee ;
(iv) in payment of the interest falling due under the mortgage;
(v) in or towards discharge of the principal money, if so directed in writing by the
mortgagee ;
and shall pay the residue, if any, of the money received by him to the person who, but
for the possession of the receiver, would have been entitled to receive the income of which he
is appointed receiver, or who is otherwise entitled to mortgaged property.
(9) The provisions of sub-section (1) apply only if and as far as contrary intention
is not expressed in the mortgage-deed; and the provisions of sub-sections (3) to (8) inclusive
may be varied or extended by the mortgage-deed, and, as so varied or extended, shall, as far
as may be, operate in like manner and with all the like incidents, effects and consequences, as
if such variations or extensions were contained in the said sub-sections.
(10) Application may be made, without the institution of a suit, to the Court for its
opinion, advice or direction on any present question respecting the management or
administration of the mortgaged property, other than questions of difficulty or importance not
proper in the opinion of the Court for summary disposal. A copy of such application shall be
served upon, and the hearing thereof may be attended by, such of the persons interested in the
application as the Court may think fit.
The costs of every application under this sub-section shall be in the discretion of the
Court.
35
(11) In this section, “the Court” means the Court which would have jurisdiction in
a suit to enforce the mortgage.]
70. Accession to mortgaged property. If after the date of a mortgage, any
accession is made to the mortgaged property, the mortgagee, in the absence of a contract to
the contrary, shall, for the purposes of the security, be entitled to such accession.
Illustrations
(a) A mortgages to B a certain field bordering on a river. The field is increased by
alluvion. For the purposes of his security, B is entitled to the increase.
(b) A mortgages a certain plot of building land to B and afterwards erects a house
on the plot. For the purposes of this security B is entitled to the house as well
as the plot.
71. Renewal of mortgaged lease. When the mortgaged property is a lease, 117*
* *, and the mortgagor obtains a renewal of the lease, the mortgagee in the
absence of a contract to the contrary, shall, for the purposes of the security, be entitled to the
new lease.
72. Rights of mortgagee in possession. 118[A mortgagee may spend such money
as is necessary :--
119(a) * * * * * * * * * * *
(b) for 120[the preservation of the mortgaged property] from destruction,
forfeiture or sale ;
(c) for supporting the mortgagor's title to property;
(d) for making his own title thereto good against the mortgagor; and
(e) when the mortgaged property is a renewable lease-hold, for the renewal of the
lease ;
and may, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, add such money to the principal
money, at the rate of interest payable on principal, and where no such rate is fixed, at the rate
of nine per cent per annum: 121[Provided that the expenditure of money by the mortgagee
under clause (b) or clause (c) shall not be deemed to be necessary unless the mortgagor has
been called upon and has failed to take proper and timely steps to preserve the property or to
support the title.]
When the property is by its nature insurable, the mortgagee may also, in the absence
of a contract to the contrary, insure and keep insured against loss or damage by fire the whole
or any part of such property; and the premiums paid for any such insurance shall be
122[added to the principal money] with interest at the same rate as is payable on the principal
money or, where no such rate is fixed, at the rate of nine per cent per annum]. But the amount
of such insurance shall not exceed the amount specified in this behalf in the mortgage-deed or
(if no such amount is therein specified) two-thirds of the amount that would be required in
case of total destruction, to reinstate the property insured.
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorize the mortgagee to insure when an
insurance of the property is kept up by or on behalf of the mortgagor to the amount in which
the mortgagee is hereby authorized to insure.
123[73. Right to proceeds of revenue sale or compensation on acquisition.
(1) Where the mortgaged property or any part thereof or any interest therein is sold owing to
failure to pay arrears of revenue or other charges of a public nature or rent due in respect of
such property, and such failure did not arise from any default of the mortgagee, the
mortgagee shall be entitled to claim payment of the mortgage-money in whole or in part, out
of any surplus of the sale-proceeds remaining after payment of the arrears and of all charges
and deductions directed by law.
(2) Where the mortgaged property or any part thereof or any interest therein is
acquired under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894, or any other enactment for the time being in
force providing for the compulsory acquisition of immovable property, the mortgagee shall
be entitled to claim payment of the mortgage-money, in whole or in part, out of the amount
due to the mortgagor as compensation.
(3) Such claims shall prevail against all other claims except those of prior
encumbrances, and may be enforced notwithstanding that the principal money on the
mortgage has not become due.]
74. [Rights of subsequent mortgagee to pay off prior mortgagees.] [Repealed
by the Transfer of Property Amendment Act, 1929 (XX of 1929), S. 39].
75. 124[Rights of mesne mortgagee against prior and subsequent
mortgagees.] Repealed by the Transfer of Property {Amendment) Act, 1929 (XX of 1929),
S. 39.
76. Liabilities of mortgagee in possession. When, during the continuance of the
mortgage, the mortgagee takes possession of the mortgaged property :-
(a) he must manage the property as a person of ordinary prudence would manage
it if it were his own ;
(b) he must use his best endeavours to collect the rents and profits thereof ;
(c) he must, in the absence of a contract to the contrary out of the income of the
property, pay the Government revenue, all other charges of a public nature and
all rent accruing due in respect thereof during such possession, and any arrears
of rent in default of payment of which the property may be summarily sold ;
(d) he must, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, make such necessary
repairs of the property as he can pay for out of the rents and profits thereof
after deducting from such rents and profits the payments mentioned in clause
(c) and the interest on the principal money ;
(e) he must not commit any act which is destructive or permanently injurious to
the property ;
(f) where he has insured the whole or any part of the property against loss or
damage by fire, he must, in case of such loss or damage, apply any money
37
which he actually receives under the policy or so much thereof as may be
necessary, in reinstating the property, or, if the mortgagor so directs in
reduction or discharge of the mortgage-money ;
(g) he must keep clear, full and accurate accounts of all sums received and spent
by him as mortgagee, and, at any time during the continuance of the mortgage,
give the mortgagor, at his request and cost, true copies of such accounts and of
the vouchers by which they are supported;
(h) his receipts from the mortgaged property, or, where such property is
personally occupied by him, a fair occupation-rent in respect thereof, shall,
after deducting the expenses 125[properly incurred for the management of the
property and the collection of rents and profits and the other expenses]
mentioned in clauses (c) and (d); and interest thereon be debited against him in
reduction of the amount (if any) from time to time due to him on account of
interest 126* * * and, so far as such receipts exceed any interest due, in
reduction or discharge of the mortgage-money; the surplus, if any, shall be
paid to the mortgagor ;
(i) when the mortgagor tenders, or deposits in manner hereinafter provided, the
amount for the time being due on the mortgage, the mortgagee must,
notwithstanding the provisions in the other clauses of this section, account for
his 127* receipts from the mortgaged property from the date of the tender or
from the earliest time when he could take such amount out of Court, as the
case may be 128[and shall not be entitled to deduct any amount therefrom on
account of any expenses incurred after such date or time in connection with
the mortgaged property].
Loss occasioned by his default. If the mortgagee fail to perform any of the duties
imposed upon him by this section, he may, when accounts are taken in pursuance of a decree
made under this Chapter, be debited with the loss, if any, occasioned by such failure.
77. Receipts in lieu of interest. Nothing in section 76, clauses (b), (d), (g) and
(h), applies to cases where there is a contract between the mortgagor that the receipts from
the mortgaged property shall, so long as the mortgagee is in possession of the property, be
taken in lieu of interest on the principal money, or in lieu of such interest and defined
portions of the principal.
Priority
78. Postponement of prior mortgagee. Where, through the fraud,
misrepresentation or gross neglect of a prior mortgagee, another person has been induced to
advance money on the security of the mortgaged property, the prior mortgagee shall be
postponed to the subsequent mortgagee.
79. Mortgage to secure uncertain amount when maximum is expressed. If a
mortgage made to secure future advances, the performance of an engagement or the balance
of a running account, expresses the maximum to be secured thereby, a subsequent mortgage
of the property shall, if made with notice of the prior mortgage, be postponed to the prior
mortgage in respect of all advances or debts not exceeding the maximum, though made or
allowed with notice of the subsequent mortgage.
Illustration
A mortgages Sultanpur to his bankers, B & Co., to secure the balance of his amount
with them to the extent of Rs. 10,000. A then mortgages Sultanpur to C, to secure Rs. 10,000,
C having notice of the mortgage to B & Co., give notice to B & Co., of the second mortgage.
At the date of the second mortgage, the balance due to B & Co. does not exceed Rs. 5,000. B
& Co., subsequently advanced to A sums making the balance of the account against him
exceed the sum of Rs. 10,000. B & Co. are entitled, to the extent of Rs. 10,000, to priority
over C.
80. [Tacking abolished.] [Repealed by section 41 of the Transfer of Property
(Amendment Act, 1929 (XX of 1929)].
Marshalling and Contribution
129[81. Marshalling securities. If the owner of two or more properties
mortgages them to one person and then mortgages one or more of the properties to another
person, the subsequent mortgagee is, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, entitled to
have the prior mortgage-debt satisfied out of the property or properties not mortgaged to him,
so far as the same will extend, but not so as to prejudice the rights of the prior mortgagee or
of any other person who has for consideration acquired an interest in any of the properties.]
82. Contribution to mortgage-debt. 130[Where property subject to a mortgage
belongs to two or more persons having distinct and separate rights of ownership therein, the
different shares in or parts of such property owned by such persons are, in the absence of a
contract to the contrary, liable to contribute rateably to the debt secured by the mortgage, and
for the purpose of determining the rate at which each such share or part shall contribute, the
value thereof shall be deemed to be its value at the date of the mortgage after deduction of the
amount of any other mortgage or charge to which it may have been subject on that date.]
Where, of two properties belonging to the same owner, one is mortgaged to secure
one debt and then both are mortgaged to secure another debt, and the former debt is paid out
of the former property, each property is, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, liable to
contribute rateably to the latter debt after deducting the amount of the former debt from the
value of the property out of which it has been paid.
Nothing in this section applies to a property liable under section 81 to the claim of the
131[subsequent] mortgagee.
Deposit in Court
83. Power to deposit in Court money due on mortgage. At any time after the
principal money 132[payable in respect of any mortgage has become due] and before a suit
for redemption of the mortgaged property is barred, the mortgagor, or any other person
39
entitled to institute such suit, may deposit, in any Court in which he might have instituted
such suit, to the account of the mortgagee, the amount remaining due on the mortgage.
Right to money deposited by mortgagor. The Court shall thereupon cause written
notice of the deposit to be served on the mortgagee, and the mortgagee may on presenting a
petition (verified in manner prescribed by law 133for the verification of plaints) stating the
amount then due on the mortgage, and his willingness to accept the money so deposited in
full discharge of such amount, and on depositing in the same Court the mortgaged-deed
134[and all documents in his possession or power relating to the mortgaged property], apply
for and receive the money, and the mortgage deed 135[and all such other documents] so
deposited shall be delivered to the mortgagor or such other person as aforesaid.
136[Where the mortgagee is in possession of the mortgaged property, the Court shall,
before paying to him the amounts so deposited, direct him to deliver possession thereof to the
mortgagor and at the cost of the mortgagor either to re-transfer the mortgaged property to the
mortgagor or to such third person as the mortgagor may direct or to execute and (where the
mortgage has been effected by a registered instrument) have registered and acknowledgment
in writing that any right in derogation of the mortgagor's interest transferred to the mortgage
has been extinguished.]
84. Cessation of interest. When the mortgagor or such other person as aforesaid
has tendered or deposited in Court under section 83 the amount remaining due on the
mortgage, interest on the principal money shall cease from the date of the tender or 137[in the
case of a deposit, where no previous tender of such amount has been made] as soon as the
mortgagor or such other person as aforesaid has done all that has to be done by him to enable
the mortgagee to take such amount out of Court, 138[and the notice required by section 83
has been served on the mortgagee:
Provided that, where the mortgagor has deposited such amount without having made a
previous tender thereof and has subsequently withdrawn the same or any part thereof, interest
on the principal money shall be payable from the date of such withdrawal.]
Nothing in this section or in section 83 shall be deemed to deprive the mortgagee of
his right to interest when there exists a contract that he shall be entitled to a reasonable notice
before payment or tender of the mortgage-money 139[and such notice has been given before
the making of the tender or deposit, as the case may be.]
140Suit for Foreclosure, Sale or Redemption
85. [Parties to suits for Foreclosure, sale and redemption.] [Repealed by the
Code of Civil Procedure. 1908 (Act of 1908), section 156 and Schedule V.]
Foreclosure and Sale
[86 to 90.] [Repealed by the -Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act V of 1908), section
156 and Schedule V.]
Redemption
141[91. Persons who may sue for redemption. Besides the mortgagor, any of the
following persons may redeem, or institute a suit for redemption of, the mortgaged property,
namely: -
(a) any person (other than the mortgagee of the interest sought to be redeemed)
who has any interest in, or charge upon, the property mortgaged or in or upon
the right to redeem the same;
(b) any surety for the payment of the mortgage-debt or any part thereof; or
(c) any creditor of the mortgagor who has in a suit for the administration of his
estate obtained a decree for sale of the mortgaged property.]
142[92. Subrogation. Any of the persons referred to in section 91 (other than
the mortgagor) and any co-mortgagor shall, on redeeming property subject to the mortgage,
have, so far as regards redemption, foreclosure or sale of such property, the same rights as the
mortgagee whose mortgage he redeems may have against the mortgagor or any other
mortgagee.
The right conferred by this section is called the right of subrogation, and a person
acquiring the same is said to be subrogated to the rights of the mortgagee whose mortgage he
redeems.
A person who has advanced to a mortgagor money with which the mortgage has been
redeemed shall be subrogated to the rights of the mortgagee whose mortgage has been
redeemed, if the mortgagor has by a registered instrument agreed that such persons shall be
so subrogated.
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to confer a right of subrogation on any person
unless the mortgagor in respect of which the right is claimed has been redeemed in full.
93. Prohibition of tacking. No mortgagee paying off a prior mortgage, whether
with or without notice of an intermediate mortgage, shall thereby acquire any priority in
respect of his original security; and, except, in the case provided for by section 79 no
mortgagee making a subsequent advance to the mortgagor whether with or without notice of
an intermediate mortgage, shall thereby acquire any priority in respect of his security for such
subsequent advance.
94. Rights of mesne mortgagee. Where a property is mortgaged for successive
debts to successive mortgagees, a mesne mortgagee has the same rights against mortgagees
posterior to himself as he has against the mortgagor. ]
143[95. Right of redeeming co-mortgagor to expenses. Where one of
several mortgagors redeems the mortgaged property, he shall, in enforcing his right of
subrogation under section 92 against his co-mortgagors, be entitled to add to the mortgagemoney
recoverable from them such proportion of the expenses properly incurred in such
redemption as is attributable to their share in the property.
41
96. Mortgage by deposit of title-deeds. The provisions hereinbefore contained
which apply to a simple mortgage shall, so far as may be, apply to a mortgage by deposit of
title-deeds.]
97. [Application of proceeds.] [Repealed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908
(Act V of 1908), S. 156 and Sch V].
Anomalous Mortgages
98. Rights and liabilities of parties to anomalous mortgages. In the case of
144[an anomalous mortgage], the rights and liabilities of the parties shall be determined by
their contract as evidenced in the mortgage-deed, and so far as such contract does not extend,
by local usage.
145 99. [Attachment of mortgaged property.] [Rep. by the Code of Civil
Procedure 1908 (Act V of 1908), S. 156 and Sch. V].
Charges
100. Charges. Where immovable property of one person by act of parties or
operation of law made security for the payment of money to another, and the transaction does
not amount to a mortgage, the latter person is said to have a charge on the property; and all
the provisions hereinbefore contained 146[which apply to a simple mortgage shall, so far as
may be, apply to such charge.]
Nothing in this section applies to the charge of a trustee on the trust-property for
expenses properly incurred in the execution of his trust 147[and, save as otherwise expressly
provided by any law for the time being in force, no charge shall be enforced against any
property in the hands of a person to whom such property has been transferred for
consideration and without notice of the charge.]
148 [101. No merger in case of subsequent encumbrance. Any mortgagee of,
or person having a charge upon, immovable property, or any transferee from such mortgagee
or charge-holder, may purchase or otherwise acquire the rights in the property of the
mortgagor or owner, as the case may be, without thereby causing the mortgage or charge to
be merged as between himself and any subsequent mortgagee of, or person having charge
upon, the same property; and no such subsequent mortgagee or charge-holder shall be entitled
to foreclose or sell such property without redeeming the prior mortgage or charge, or
otherwise than subject thereto.]
Notice and Tender
102. Service or tender on or to agent. Where the person on or to whom any
notice or tender is to be served or made under this Chapter does not reside in the district in
which the mortgaged property of some part thereof is situate, service or tender on or to an
agent holding a general power-of-attorney from such person or otherwise duly authorised to
accept such service or tender shall be deemed sufficient.
149 [Where no person or agent on whom such notice should be served can be found
or is known] to the person required to serve the notice, the later person may apply to any
Court in which a suit might be brought for redemption of the mortgaged property, and such
Court shall direct in what manner such notice shall be served, and any notice served in
compliance with such direction shall be deemed sufficient:
150 [Provided that, in the case of a notice required by Section 83, in the case of a
deposit, the application shall be made to the Court in which the deposit has been made.]
151 [Where no person or agent to whom such tender should be made can be found or
is known] to the person desiring to make the tender, the later person may deposit 152 [in any
Court in which a suit might be brought for redemption of the mortgaged property] the amount
sought to be tendered, and such deposit shall have the effect of a tender of such amount.
103. Notice, etc., to or by person incompetent to contract. Where, under the
provisions of this Chapter, a notice is to be served on or by, or a tender or deposit made or
accepted or taken out of Court by, any person incompetent to contract, such notice may be
served 153 [on or by], or tender or deposit made, accepted, or taken by the legal curator of
the property of such person; but where there is no such curator, and it is requisite or desirable
in the interests of such person that a notice should be served or a tender or deposit made
under the provisions of this Chapter, application may be made to any Court in which a suit
might be brought for the redemption of the mortgage to appoint a guardian ad litem for the
purpose of serving or receiving service of such notice, or making or accepting such tender, or
making or taking out of Court such deposit, and for the performance of all consequential acts
which could or ought to be done by such person if he were competent to contract; 154and the
provisions of 155 [Order XXXII in the First Schedule to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908
(V of 1908)] shall, so far as may be, apply to such application and to the parties thereto and to
the guardian appointed thereunder.
156 104. Power to make rules. The High Court may, from time to time, make
rules consistent with this Act for carrying out, in itself and in the Courts of Civil Judicature
subject to its superintendence, the provisions contained in this Chapter.
43
CHAPTER V
OF LEASES OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
105. Lease defined. A lease of immovable property is a transfer of a right to enjoy
such property, made for a certain time, express or implied, or in perpetuity, in consideration
of a price paid or promised, or of money, a share of crops, service or any other thing of value,
to be rendered, periodically or on specified occasions to the transferor by the transferee, who
accepts the transfer on such terms.
Lessor, lessee, premium and rent defined. The transferor is called the lessor, the
transferee is called the lessee, the price is called the premium, and the money, service or other
thing to be so rendered is called the rent.
106. Duration of certain leases in absence of written contract or local usage. In
the absence of a contract or local law or usage to the contrary, a lease of immovable property
for agricultural or manufacturing purposes shall be deemed to be a lease from year to year,
terminable, on the part of either lessor or lessee, by six months' notice expiring with the end
of a year of the tenancy; and a lease of immovable property for any other purpose shall be
deemed to be a lease from month to month, terminable, on the part of either lessor or lessee,
by fifteen days' notice expiring with the end of a month of tenancy.
Every notice under this section must be in writing signed by or on behalf of the person
giving it, and 157 [either be sent by post to the party who is intended to be bound by it or be
tendered or delivered personally to such party], or to one of his family or servants at his
residence, or (if such tender or delivery is not practicable) affixed to a conspicuous part of the
property.
158 107. Leases how made. A lease of immovable property from year to year,
or for any term exceeding one year, or reserving a yearly rent, can be made only by a
registered instrument.
159 [All other leases of immovable property may be made either by a registered
instrument or by oral agreement accompanied by delivery of possession.]
160 [Where a lease of immovable property is made by a registered instrument, such
instrument or, where there are more instruments than one, each such instrument shall be
executed by both the lessor and the lessee:]
161 [Provided that the 162 [Provincial Government] may, 163* * * from time to time,
by notification in the 164[official Gazette], direct that leases of immovable property, other
than leases from year to year, or for any term exceeding one year, or reserving a yearly rent,
or any class of such leases, may be made by unregistered instrument or by oral agreement
without delivery of possession.]
108. Rights and liabilities of lessor and lessee. In the absence of a contract or
local usage to the contrary, the lessor and the lessee of immovable property, as against one
another, respectively, possess the rights and are subject to the liabilities mentioned in the
rules next following, or such of them as are applicable to the property leased:-
(A) Rights and Liabilities of the Lessor
(a) the lessor is bound to disclose to the lessee any material defect in the
property, with reference to its intended, use of which the former is and the
later is not aware, and which the later could not with ordinary care discover;
(b) the lessor is bound, on the lessee's request, to put him in possession of the
property;
(c) the lessor shall be deemed to contract with the lessee that, if the later pays the
rent reserved by the lease and performs the contracts binding on the lessee, he
may hold the property during the time limited by the lease without
interruption.
The benefit of such contract shall be annexed to and go with the lessee's interest as
such and may be enforced by every person in whom that interest is for the whole or any part
thereof from time to time vested.
(B) Rights and Liabilities of the Lessee
(d) if during the continuance of the lease any accession is made to the property
such accession (subject to the law relating to alluvion for the time being in
force) shall be deemed to be comprised in the lease ;
(e) if by fire, tempest or flood, or violence of an army or of a mob or other
irresistible force, any material part of the property be wholly destroyed or
rendered substantially and permanently unfit for the purposes for which it was
let, the lease shall, at the option of the lessee, be void:
Provided that, if the injury be occasioned by the wrongful act or default of the lessee,
he shall not be entitled to avail himself of the benefit of this provision:
(f) if the lessor neglects to make, within a reasonable time after notice, any
repairs which he is bound to make to the property, the lessee may make the
same himself, and deduct the expense of such repairs with interest from the
rent or otherwise recover it from the lessor ;
(g) if the lessor neglects to make any payment which he is bound to make, and
which, if not made by him, is recoverable from the lessee or against the
property, the lessee may make such payment himself, and deduct it with
interest from the rent, or otherwise recover it from the lessor ;
(h) the lessee may 165[even after the determination of the lease] remove, at any
time 166[whilst he is in possession of the property leased but not afterwards]
all things which he has attached to the earth: provided he leaves the property
in the state in which he received it;
(i) when a lease of uncertain duration determines by any means except the fault
of the lessee, he or his legal representative is entitled to all the crops planted or
sown by the lessee and growing upon the property when the lease determines,
and to free ingress and egress to gather and carry them ;
(j) the lessee may transfer absolutely or by way of mortgage or sub-lease the
whole or any part of his interest in the property, and any transferee of such
interest or part may again transfer it. The lessee shall not, by reason only of
such transfer, cease to be subject to any of the liabilities attaching to the lease;
Noting in this clause shall be deemed to authorize a tenant having an untransferable
right of occupancy, the farmer of an estate in respect of which default has been made in
45
paying revenue, or the lessee of an estate under the management of a Court of Wards, to
assign his interest as such tenant, farmer or lessee: '
(k) the lessee is bound to disclose to the lessor any fact as to the nature or extent
of the interest which the lessee is about to take of which the lessee is, and the
lessor is not aware, and which materially increases the value of such interest;
(l) the lessee is bound to pay or tender, at the proper time and place, the premium
or rent to the lessor or his agent in this behalf;
(m) the lessee is bound to keep, and on the termination of the lease to restore, the
property in as good condition as it was in at the time when he was put in
possession subject only to the changes caused by reasonable wear and tear or
irresistible force, and to allow the lessor and his agents, at all reasonable times
during the term, to enter upon the property and inspect the condition thereof
and give or leave notice of any defect, in such condition, and when such defect
has been caused by any act or default on the part of the lessee, his servants or
agents, he is bound, to make it good within three months after such notice has
been given or left;
(n) if the lessee becomes aware of any proceeding to recover the property or any
part thereof, or of any encroachment made upon, or any interference with, the
lessor's rights concerning such property, he is bound to give, with reasonable
diligence, notice thereof to the lessor;
(o) the lessee may use the property and its products (if any) as a person of
ordinary prudence would use them if they were his own; but he-must not use,
or permit another to use, the property for a purpose other than that for which it
was leased, or fell or sell timber, pull down or damage buildings
167[belonging to the lessor, or] work mines or quarries not open when the
lease was granted, or commit any other act which is destructive or
permanently injurious thereto;
(p) he must not, without the lessor's consent, erect on the property any permanent
structure, except for agricultural purposes;
(q) on the determination of the lease, the lessee is bound to put the lessor into
possession of the property.
109. Rights of lessor's transferee. If the lessor transfers the property leased, or any
part thereof, or any part of his interest therein, the transferee, in the absence of a contract to
the contrary, shall possess all the rights, and, if the lessee so elects be subject to all the
liabilities of the lessor as to the property or part transferred so long as he is the owner of it;
but the lessor shall not, by reason only of such transfer, cease to be subject to any of
the liabilities imposed upon him by the lease, unless the lessee elects to treat the transferee as
the person liable to him:
Provided that the transferee is not entitled to arrears or rent due before the transfer,
and that, if the lessee, not having reason to believe that such transfer has been made, pays rent
to the lessor, the lessee shall not be liable to pay such rent over again to the transferee.
The lessor, the transferee and the lessee may determine what proportion of the
premium or rent reserved by the lease is payable in respect of the part so transferred, and, in
case they disagree, such determination may be made by any Court having jurisdiction to
entertain a suit for the possession of the property leased.
110. Exclusion of day on which term commences. Where the time limited by a
lease of immovable property is expressed commencing from a particular day in computing
that time such day shall be excluded. Where no day of commencement is named, the time so
limited begins from the making of the lease.
Duration of lease for year. Where the time so limited is a year or a number of years,
in the absence of an express agreement to the contrary, the lease shall last during the whole
anniversary of the day from which such time commences.
Option to determine lease. Where the time so limited is expressed to be terminable
before its expiration, and the lease omits to mention at whose option it is so terminable, the
lessee, and not the lessor, shall have such option.
111. Determination of lease. A lease of immovable property determines:-
(a) by efflux of the time limited thereby;
(b) where such time is limited conditionally on the happening of some event-by
the happening of such event;
(c) where the interest of the lessor in the property terminates on, or his power to
dispose of the same extends only to, the happening of any event-by the
happening of such event;
(d) in case the interests of the lessee and the lessor in the whole of the property
become vested at the same time in one person in the same right;
(e) by express surrender; that is to say, in case the lessee yields up his interest
under the lease, to the lessor by mutual agreement between them;
(f) by implied surrender;
(g) by forfeiture; that is to say, (1) in case the lessee breaks an express condition
which provides that on breach thereof the lessor may re-enter; 168 * * * or (2)
in case the lessee renounces his character as such by setting up a title in a third
person or by claiming title in himself; 169[or (3) the lessee is adjudicated an
insolvent and the lease provides that the lessor may re-enter on the happening
of such event;] and in 170[any of these cases] the lessor or his transferee
171[gives notice in writing to the lessee of] his intention to determine the
lease; and
(h) on the expiration of a notice to determine the. lease, or to quit, or of intention
to quit, the property leased, duly given by one party to the other.
Illustration to Clause (f)
A lessee accepts from his lessor a new lease of the property leased, to take effect
during the continuance of the existing lease. This is an implied surrender of the former lease,
and such lease determines thereupon.
112. Waiver of forfeiture. A forfeiture under section 111, clause (g), is waived by
acceptance of rent which has become due since the forfeiture, or by distress for such rent, or
by any other act on -the part of the lessor showing an intention to treat the lease as subsisting:
Provided that the lessor is aware that the forfeiture has been incurred:
47
Provided also that, where rent is accepted after the institution of a suit to eject the
lessee on the ground of forfeiture, such acceptance is not a waiver.
113. Waiver of notice to quit. A notice given under section 111, clause (h), is
waived, with the express or implied consent of the person to whom it is given, by any act on
the part of the person giving it showing an intention to treat the lease as subsisting.
Illustrations
(a) A, the lessor, gives B, the lessee, notice to quit the property leased. The notice
expires. B tenders, and A accepts, rent which has become due in respect of the
property since the expiration of the notice. The notice is waived.
(b) A, the lessor, gives B, the lessee, notice to quit the property leased. The notice
expires and B remains in possession. A gives to B as lessee a second notice to
quit. The first notice is waived.
172 [114. Relief against forfeiture for non-payment of rent. Where a lease of
immovable property has determined by forfeiture for non-payment of rent, and the lessor sues
to eject the lessee, if, at the hearing of the suit, the lessee pays or tenders the lessor the rent in
arrear, together with interest thereon his full costs of the suit, or gives such security as the
Court thinks sufficient for making such payment within fifteen days, the Court may, in lieu of
making a decree for ejectment pass an order relieving the lessee against the forfeiture; and
thereupon the lessee shall hold the property leased as if the forfeiture had not occurred.
173 114-A. Relief against forfeiture in certain other cases. Where a lease of
immovable property has determined by forfeiture for a breach of an express condition which
provides that on breach thereof the lessor may re-enter, no suit for ejectment shall lie unless
and until the lessor has served on the lessee a notice in writing:-
(a) specifying the particular breach complained of; and
(b) if the breach is capable of remedy, requiring the lessee to remedy the breach;
and the lessee fails, within a reasonable time from the date of the service of the notice,
to remedy the breach, if it is capable of remedy.
Nothing in this section shall apply to an express condition against the assigning,
underletting, parting with the possession, or disposing, of the property leased, or to an express
condition relating to forfeiture in case of non-payment of rent.]
115. Effect of surrender and forfeiture on under-leases. The surrender, express
or implied, of a lease of immovable property does not prejudice an under lease of the
property or any part thereof previously granted by the lessee, on terms and conditions
substantially the same (except as regards the amount of rent) as those of the original lease;
but unless the surrender is made for the purpose of obtaining a new lease, the rent payable by,
and the contracts binding on, the under-lessee shall be respectively payable to and
enforceable by the lessor.
The forfeiture of such a lease annuls all such under-leases except where such
forfeiture has been procured by the lessor in fraud of the under-lessees, or relief against the
forfeiture is granted under section 114.
116 Effect of holding over. If a lessee or under-lessee of property remains in
possession thereof after the determination of the lease granted to the lessee, and the lessor or
his legal representative accepts rent from the lessee or under-lessee, or otherwise assents to
his continuing in possession, the lease is, in the absence of an agreement to the contrary,
renewed from year to year, or from month to month, according to the purpose for which the
property is leased, as specified in section 106.
Illustrations
(a) A lets a house to B for five years. B underlets the house to C at a monthly rent
of Rs. 100. The five years expire, but C continues in possession of the house and pays the
rent to A. Cs lease is renewed from month to month.
(b) A lets a farm to B for the life of C. C dies, but B continue in possession with
A's assent. B's lease is renewed from year to year.
117. Exemption of leases for agricultural purposes. None of the provisions of
this Chapter apply to leases for agricultural purposes, except in so far as the 174[Provincial
Government] 175* * * may, by 176[Notification] published in the 177[official Gazette],
declare all or any of such provisions to be so applicable 178[in the case of all or any of such
leases], together with or subject to, those of the local law, if any, for the time being in force;
Such notification shall not take effect until the expiry of six months from the date of
its publication. .
49
CHAPTER VI
OF EXCHANGES
118. Exchange defined. When two persons mutually transfer the ownership of one
thing for the ownership of another, neither thing or both things being money only, the
transaction is called an “exchange”.
A transfer of property in completion of an exchange can be made only in manner
provided for the transfer of such property by sale.
179 [119. Right of party deprived of thing received in exchange. If any party
to an exchange or any person claiming through or under such party is by reason of any defect
in the title of the other party deprived of the thing or any part of the thing received by him in
exchange, them, unless a contrary intention appears from the terms of the exchange, such
other party is liable to him or any person claiming through or under him for loss caused
thereby, or at the option of the person so deprived, for the return of the thing transferred, if
still in the possession of such other party or his legal representative or a transferee from him
without consideration.]
120. Rights and liabilities of parties. Save as otherwise provided in this Chapter,
each party has the rights and is subject to the liabilities of a seller as to that which he gives,
and has the rights and is subject to the liabilities of a buyer as to that which he takes.
121. Exchange of money. On an exchange of money, each party thereby warrants
the genuineness of the money given by, him.
CHAPTER VII
OF GIFTS
180 122. “Gift” defined. “Gift” is the transfer of certain existing movable or
immovable property made voluntarily and without consideration, by one person, called the
donor, to another, called the donee, and accepted by or on behalf of the donee.
Acceptance when to be made. Such acceptance must be made during the lifetime of
the donor and while he is still capable of giving.
If the donee dies before acceptance, the gift is void.
181 123. Transfer of Property effected. For the purpose of making a gift of
immovable property, the transfer must be effected by a registered instrument signed by or on
behalf of the donor, and attested by at least two witnesses.
For the purpose of making a gift of movable property, the transfer may be effected
either by a registered instrument signed as aforesaid or by delivery.
Such delivery may be made in the same way as goods sold may be delivered.
124. Gift of existing and future property. A gift comprising both existing and
future property is void as to the latter.
125. Gift to several, of whom one does not accept. A gift of a thing to two or
more donees, of whom one does not accept it, is void as to the interest which he would have
taken had he accepted.
182 126. When gift may be suspended or revoked. The donor and donee may
agree that on the happening of any specified event which does not depend on the will of the
donor a gift shall be suspended or revoked;
but a gift which the parties agree shall be revocable wholly or in part, at the mere will
of the donor, is void wholly or in part, as the case may be.
A gift may also be revoked in any of the cases (save want or failure of consideration)
in which, if it were a contract, it might be rescinded.
Save as aforesaid a gift cannot be revoked.
Nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to affect the rights of transferees for
consideration without notice.
Illustrations
(a) A gives a field to B, reserving to himself, with B's assent, the right to take
back the field in case B and his descendants dies before A. B dies without
descendants in A's lifetime. A may take back the field.
(b) A gives a lakh of rupees to B, reserving to himself, with B's assent, the right to
take back at pleasure Rs. 10,000 out of the lakh. The gift holds good as to Rs.
90, 000, but is void as to Rs. 10,000, which continue to belong to A.
51
127. Onerous gift. Where a gift is in the form of a single transfer to the same
person of several things of which one is, and the others are not, burden by an obligation, the
donee can take nothing by the gift unless he accepts it fully.
Where a gift is in the form of two or more separate and independent transfers to the
same person of several things, the donee is at liberty to accept one of them and refuse the
others, although the former may be beneficial and the latter onerous.
Onerous gift to disqualified person. A donee not competent to contract and accepting
property burdened by any obligation is not bound by his acceptance. But if, after becoming
competent to contract and being aware of the obligation, he retains the property given, he
becomes so bound.
Illustrations
(a) A has shares in, X, a properous joint stock company, and also shares in Y, A
joint stock company, in difficulties. Heavy calls are expected in respect of the
shares in Y. A gives B all his shares in joint stock companies. B refuses to
accept the shares in Y. He cannot take the shares in X.
(b) A having a lease for term of years of a house at a rent which he and his
representatives are bound to pay during the term, and which is more than the
house can be let for, gives to B the lease, and also, as a separate and
independent transaction a sum of money. B refuses to accept the lease. He
does not by this refusal forfeit the money.
183 128. Universal donee. Subject to the provisions of section 127, where a gift
consists of the donor's whole property, the donee is personally liable for all the debts due by
184[and liabilities of] the donor at the time of the gift to the extent of the property comprised
therein.
129. Saving of donations mortis causa and Muslim law. Nothing in this Chapter
relates to gifts of movable property made in contemplation of death, or shall be deemed to
affect any rule of 185[Muslim] law 186* * *.
CHAPTER VIII
OF TRANSFERS OF ACTIONABLE CLAIMS
130. Transfer of actionable claim. (1) The transfer of an actionable claim
187[whether with or without consideration] shall be effected only by the execution of an
instrument in writing signed by the transferor or his duly authorized agent, 188 * * * shall
be complete and effectual upon the execution of such instrument, and thereupon all the rights
and remedies of the transferor, whether by way of damages or otherwise, shall vest in the
transferee, whether such notice of the transfer as is hereinafter provided be given or not:
Provided that every dealing with the debt or other actionable claim by the debtor or
other person from or against whom the transferor would, but for such instrument of transfer
as aforesaid, have been entitled to recover or enforce such debt or other actionable claim,
shall (save where the debtor or other person is a party to the transfer or has received express
notice thereof as hereinafter, provided) be valid as against such transfer.
(2) The transferee of an actionable claim may, upon the execution of such
instrument of transfer as aforesaid, sue or institute proceedings for the same in his own name
without obtaining the transferor's consent to such suit or proceedings and without making him
a party thereto.
Exception. IV of 1938. Nothing in this section applies to the transfer of a marine or
fire policy of insurance 189[or affects the provisions of section 38 of the Insurance Act,
1938.]
Illustrations
(i) A owes money to B, who transfers the debt to C. B then demands the debt
from A, who, not having received notice of the transfer, as prescribed in
section 131, pays B. The payment is valid, and C cannot sue B for the debt.
(ii) A effects a policy on his own life with an Insurance Company and assigns it to
a Bank for securing the payment of an existing or future debt. If A dies, the
Bank is entitled to receive the amount of the policy and to sue on it without the
concurrence of A's executor, subject to the provision in sub-section (1) of
section 130 and to the provisions of section 132.
190 [130A. Transfer of policy of marine insurance. (1) A policy of marine
insurance may be transferred by assignment unless it contains terms expressly prohibiting
assignment, and may be assigned either before or after loss.
(2) A policy of marine insurance may be assigned by endorsement thereon or in
any other customary manner.
(3) Where the issued person has parted with or lost his interest in the subjectmatter
insured, and has not, before or at the time of so doing, expressly or impliedly agreed to
assign the policy and subsequent assignment of the policy is inoperative.
Provided that nothing in this sub-section affects the assignment of the policy after
loss.
(4) Nothing in clause (e) of section 6 shall affect the provisions of this section.]
131. Notice to be in writing, signed. Every notice of transfer of an actionable
claim shall be in writing, signed by the transferor or his agent duly authorized in this behalf,
53
or in case the transferor refuses to sign, by the transferee or his agent, and shall state the
name, and address of the transferee.
191 132. Liability of transferee of actionable claim. The transferee of an
actionable claim shall take it subject to all the liabilities and equities to which the transferor
was subject in respect thereof at the date of the transfer.
Illustrations
(i) A transfers to C a debt due to him by B, A being then indebted to B. C sues
for the debt by B to A In such suit B is entitled to set off the debt due by A to
him; although C was unaware of it at the date of such transfer.
(ii) A executed a bond in favour of B under circumstances entitling the former to
have it delivered up and cancelled. B assigns the bond to C for value and
without notice of such circumstances. C cannot enforce the bond against A.
133. Warranty of solvency of debtor. Where the transferor of a debt warrants the
solvency of the debtor, the warranty, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, applies only
to his solvency at the time of the transfer, and is limited, where the transfer is made for
consideration, to the amount or value of such consideration.
134. Mortgaged debt. Where a debt is transferred for the purpose of securing an
existing or future debt, the debt so transferred, if received by the transferor or recovered by
the transferee is applicable, first, in payment of the costs of such recovery: secondly, in or
towards satisfaction of the amount for the time being secured by the transfer; and the residue,
if any, belongs to the transferor or other person entitled to receive the same.
192 [135. Assignment of rights under policy of insurance. Every assignee, by
endorsement or other writing, of the policy of insurance against fire, in whom the property in
the subject insured shall be absolutely vested at the date of the assignment, shall have
transferred and vested in him all rights of suit as if the contract contained in the policy had
been made with himself.]
193 [135-A. Assignment of rights under policy of marine insurance. (1) Where
a policy of marine insurance has been assigned so as to pass the beneficial interest therein,
the assignee of the policy is entitled to sue thereon in his own name; and the defendant is
entitled to make any defence arising out of contract which he would have been entitled to
make if the action had been brought in the name of the person by or on behalf of whom the
policy was effected.
(2) Where the insurer pays for a total loss, either of the whole, or in the case of
goods, of any apportionable part, of the subject-matter insured, he thereupon becomes
entitled to take over the interest of the insured person in whatever may remain of the subjectmatter
so paid for, and he is hereby subrogated to all the rights and remedies of the insured
person in and in respect of that subject-matter as from the time of the casualty causing the
loss.
(3) Where the insurer pays for a partial loss, he acquires no title to the subjectmatter
insured, or such part of it as may remain, but' he is thereupon subrogated to all rights
and remedies of the insured person as from the time of the casualty causing the loss, in so far
as the insured person, has been indemnified by such payment for the loss.
(4) Nothing in clause (e) of section 6 shall affect the provisions of this section.]
136. Incapacity of officers connected with Courts of Justice. No Judge, legal
practitioner or officer connected with any Court of Justice shall buy or traffic in, or stipulate
for, or agree to receive any share of, or interest in, any actionable claim, and no Court of
Justice shall enforce, at his instance, or at the instance of any person claiming by or through
him, any actionable claim, so dealt with by him as aforesaid.
137. Saving of negotiable instruments, etc. Nothing in the foregoing sections of
the Chapter applies to stocks, shares or debentures, or to instruments which are for the time
being by law or custom, negotiable, or to any mercantile document of title to goods.
Explanation. The expression “mercantile document of title of goods” includes a bill
of lading, dock-warrant, ware-house-keeper's certificate, railway-receipt, warrant or order for
the delivery of goods, and any other document used in the ordinary course of business as
proof of the possession or control of goods, or authorizing or purporting to authorize, either
by endorsement or by delivery, the possessor of the document to transfer or receive goods
thereby represented.]
55
THE SCHEDULE
Year and Chapter Subject Extent of Repeal
(a) STATUTES
27 Hen. VIII, C. 10 Uses The whole
13 Eliz., C. 5 Fraudulent
Conveyances
The whole
27 Eliz., C. 4 Fraudulent
Conveyance
The whole
4 Wm. and Mary, C. 16 Clandestine
Mortgages
The whole
(b) ACTS OF THE GOVERNOR GENERAL-IN-COUNCIL
1* * * * *
2* * * * *
XI of 1855 Mesne profitsand
improvements.
Section 1; in the title, the
words “to mesne profits
and,” and in the preamble “to
limit the liability for mesne
profits and”.
XXVII of 1866
IV of 1872
3* Trustee Act
Punjab Laws Act
Section 31.
So far as it relates to Bengal
Regulations I of 1798 and
XVII of 1806.
4* * * * *
5* * * * *
I of 1877 Specific Relief In sections 35 and 36, the
words “in writing”.
6*
1. Items relating to Act 1 < of 1842, omitted by the Centeral Laws (Statute
Reform) Ordinance, 1960 (21 of 1960), s. 3 and 2nd Sch. (with effect from the 14th October,
1955).
2. Items relating to Act XXXI of 1854, omitted, ibid. (with effect from the 14th
October, 1955).
3. The word “India”, repealed by the Federal Laws (Revision and Declaration)
Act, 1951 (26 of 1951), s. 3 and 2nd Sch.
4. Items relating to Act XX of 1875, rep., ibid.
5. Items relating to Act XVIII of 1876, rep., ibid.
6. Part (C) omitted by the Federal Laws (Revision and Declaration Ordinance,
1981 (27 of 1981), s. 3 and 2nd Sch.
1. For Statement of Objects and Reasons, see Gazette of India, 1877.
This Act has been extended with effect from 1st January, 1915, to the Province
of Sindh, see Bom. R & O.
Ss. 54, 107 and 123 have been extended from 6th May, 1935, to all
Municipalities in the Punjab and all notified areas declared and notified under s. 241 of the
Punjab Municipal Act, 1911, see Punjab Gazette Extra Ordinary, 1925, p. 27.
S. 54, paras, 2 and 3, and ss. 59, 107 and 123 extend to every cantonment in
the Provinces, etc., see s. 287 of the Cantonments Act. 1924 (2 of 1924).
It has been rep. as to Crown Grants by the Crown Grants Act, 1895 (15 of
1895), and amended in Sindh by Sindh Act 14 of 1939, s. 2.
This Act shall be deemed to have been amended in its application to the
Province of Sindh, see Sindh Act 14 of 1939.
The Act has been extended, in respect of non-agricultural lands, to Balochistan
States Union and the Khairpur State by G.G.Os. 4 and 5 of 1953, as amended respectively.
The Act has been and shall be deemed to have been brought into force in
Gwadur with effect from the 8th September, 1958, by the Gwadur (Application of Central
Laws) Ordinance, 1960 (37 of 1960), s. 2.
The Act, as in force in the North-West Frontier Province immediately before
the commencement of N.W.F.P. Regulation No. 2 of 1974, has been applied to the
Provincially Administered Tribal Areas of Chitral, Dir, Kalam, Swat and Malakand Protected
Area, by N.W.F.P. Regulation No. 2 of 1974, s. 3.
2. The original paragraph which was first subs. By A.O., 1937 and subsequently
amended by A.O., 1949 and A.O., 1961 have been omitted by F.A.O., 1975, Art. 2 and Sch.
3. Subs. by the Central Laws (Statute Reform) Ordinance, 1960 (21 of 1960), s. 3
and 2nd Sch. (with effect from the 14th October, 1955), for the fourth paragraph, which had
been amended by A.O., 1937, A.O., 1949, and Act 26 of 1951.
4. Subs. by F.A.O., 1975, Art. 2 and Sch., for “But this”.
5. Subs. ibid., for “West Pakistan”.
6. Subs. by A.O., 1964, Art. 2 and Sch., for “and the [Federal] Territory of
Karachi] by the Provincial Government concerned”. The words in crotchets were subs. by
the Repealing and Amending Ordinance, 1961 (1 of 1961), s. 3 and 2nd Sch., for “Capital of
the Federation”.
7. Subs. by the Transfer of Property Act, (1882) Amendment Act, 1885 (3 of
1885), s. 1, for the original para.
8. Subs. by A.O., 1937, for “L.G.
9. The words “with the previous sanction of the G.G. in C.” rep. by the
Devolution Act, 1920 (38 of 1920), s. 2 and Sch. 1.
10. Subs. by A.O., 1937, for “local official Gazette”.
11. Ins. by Act 3 of 1885; it is to be deemed to have been added from the date on
which Act 4 of 1982 came into force.
12. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), for 1877”.
13. The words “Hindu” rep. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of
1929), s. 3.
14. Subs. by F.A.O., 1975, Art. 2 and Table, for “Muhammadan”.
15. The words “or Buddist” rep. ibid., s. 3.
16. Ins. by s. 2 of the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1926 (27 of 1926).
17. Ins. by the Repealing and Amending Act, 1927 (10 of 1027), s. 2 and Sch. 1.
18. Subs. by A.O., 1949, Sch., for “British India”.
19. See the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908).
57
20. Ins. by s. 2 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1900 (2 of 1900).
21. This paragraph with the explanations and provisos was subs. for the original
paragraph by s. 4 of the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929).
22. Subs. by s. 2 of the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1930 (5 of 1930).
23. Subs. by the Transfer of Property Act, 1900 (2 of 1900), s. 3 (ii), for “for an
illegal purpose”.
24. Clause (i) ins. by the Transfer of Property Act, (1882) Amendment Act, 1885,
(3 of 1885), s. 4.
25. Subs. by F.A.O., 1975, Art. 2 and Table, for “Muhammadan”.
26. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 8, for the
original second paragraph.
27. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), section 9,
for “as regards the whole class”.
28. New ss. 16 to 18 were subs. ibid., s. 10, for the original sections.
29. New ss. 16—18 subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of
1929), s. 10, for the original sections.
30. Subs. by the Central Laws (Statute Reform) Ordinance, 1960 (21 of 1960), s. 2
and 2nd Sch., for “Sultanpur” (with effect from the 14th October, 1955).
31. Subs. by A.O., 1937, for “L.G.”.
32. The words “with the intention of defeating such right” rep. by the Transfer of
Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 11.
33. Subs. ibid., for “of such intention”.
34. The illustration was rep., ibid.
35. Subs. ibid., s. 12, for “of the latter property or to compel its enjoyment in a
particular manner”.
36. Subs. by the Central Laws (Statute Reform) Ordinance, 1960 (21 of 1960), s. 3
and 2nd Sch., for “Sultanpur” (with effect from the 14th October, 1955).
37. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 13.
38. Subs. by the Central Laws (Statute Reform) Ordinance, 1960 (21 of 1960), s. 3
and 2nd Sch., for “Sultanpur” (with effect from the 14th October, 1955).
39. Subs. ibid., for “Lalpura” (with effect from the 14th October, 1955).
40. Subs. by the Central Laws (Statute Reform) Ordinance, 1960 (21 of 1960), s.
3 and 2nd Sch., for “Sultanpur” (with effect from the 14th October, 195).
41. Subs. ibid., for “Lalpura” (with effect from the 14th October, 1955).
42. Section 52 has been amended in Sindh by the Transfer of Property and the
Indian Registration (Sindh Amdt.) Act, 1939, (14 of 1939), s. 2.
43. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929, (20 of 1929), s. 14, for
“active prosecution”.
44. 38. Subs. by the Central Laws (Statute Reform) Ordinance, 1960 (21 of
1960), s. 3 and 2nd Sch., for “Sultanpur” (with effect from the 14th October, 1955), for “the
Provinces and the Capital of the Federation”, which had been subs. by A.O., 1949, Arts, 3 (2)
and 4, for “British India”.
45. Subs. by A.O., 1937, for “the G.G. in C.”
46. Subs. by F.A.O., 1975, Art, 2 and Table, for “Central Government”.
47. The words “or the Crown Representative” omitted by A.O., 1949, Sch.
48. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 14, for “a contentious”.
49. Ins. ibid.
50. Explanation ins., ibid.
51. Subs. ibid., s. 15, for the original section.
52. s. 53A ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 16.
53. As to limitation to the territorial operation of paragraphs 2 and 3 of s. 54,
Cantonments Act, 1924 (2 of 1924).
54. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 17.
55. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1928), s. 17.
56. The words “with notice of the payment” rep., ibid.
57. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 18, for
the original section.
58. Subs. by F.A.O., 1975, Art, 2 and Table, for “Central Government”, which
was previously subs. by A.O., 1937, for “G. of I.”, to read as above.
59. Subs. by A.O., 1937, for “L.G.”
60. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1928), s. 19.
61. Subs. ibid., for “and to appropriate them”.
62. Subs. ibid., for “and”.
63. Sub-sections (f) and (g) ins., ibid.
64. Subs. by A.O., 1949, Sch., for “any of the following towns, namely, the towns
of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay [and]”. The word in brackets was ins. by A.O., 1937.
65. The words “Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein and Akyab” rep by A.O., 1937.
66. Subs. ibid., for “G.G. in. C.”.
67. Subs. ibid., for “Gazette of India”.
68. As to limitation to the territorial operation of s. 59, see s. 1, supra, Section 59
extends to every cantonment in the Provinces, etc – see s. 287 of the Cantonments Act, 1924
(2 of 1924).
69. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 20.
70. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1904 (6 of 1904), s. 3, for “an
instrument”.
71. The third paragraph was omitted by Act 20 of 1929, s. 20.
72. Section 59 A ins. ibid., s. 21.
73. Subs. ibid., s. 22, for “payable”.
74. Subs. ibid., for “the mortgage-deed, if any, to the mortgagor”.
75. Subs. ibid., for “order”.
76. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 21.
77. Ss. 60 A and 60 B ins. ibid., s. 23.
78. Subs. ibid., s. 24, for the original section.
79. Ins. ibid., s. 25.
80. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 25, for
“the interst of the principal money”.
81. Subs. ibid., for “the Principal money”.
82. Subs. ibid., s. 26, for “at the same rate of interest”.
83. Section 63 A, ins. ibid., s. 27.
84. The words “for a term of years” omitted by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.)
Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), ss. 28 and 29.
85. Certain words were omitted ibid.
86. Section 65 A, ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929),
s. 30.
87. Subs. ibid., s. 31, for “payable”.
88. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 31.
89. Subs. ibid., for the original clause.
90. Section 67 A ins. ibid., s. 32.
91. Subs. ibid., s. 33, for the original section.
92. Section 69 was numbered as sub-section (1) by the Transfer of Property
(Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 34.
59
93. Subs. ibid., for certain original words.
94. Omitted and subs. by the Federal Laws (Revision and Declaration) Ordinance,
1981 (27 of 1981), s. 3 and 2nd Sch.
95. Subs. by F.A.O. 1975, Art. 2 and Table, for “Muhammadan”.
96. Ins. by the Transfer of Property Act (1882) Amdt. Act 1885 (3 of 1885).
97. Subs. by A.O., 1937, for “the L.G., with the previous sanction of the G.G. in
C.”.
98. Subs. ibid., for “local official Gazette”.
99. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 34.
100. The original words “the Secretary of State for India in Council” have
successively been amended by A.O., 1937 and A.O., 1961, Art. 2 (with effect from the 23rd
March, 1956), to read as above.
101. Added by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1966 (5 of 1966), s. 2.
102. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929 s. 34, for “is”.
103. Subs. by A.O., 1949, Sch., for “towns of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay”.
104. The words “Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein, Akyab” rep. by A.O., 1937.
105. Subs. ibid., for “G.G. in C.”.
106. Subs. ibid., for “Gazette of India”.
107. The word “But” rep. by Act 20 of 1929 s. 34.
108. This para. Was numbered as sub-section (2) ibid.
109. Subs. by Act 5 of 1966, s. 2 for “no such power shall”.
110. This clause was lettered (a), by Act 20 of 1929 of s. 34.
111. This clause was lettered (b), ibid.
112. Subs. by Act 5 of 1966, s. 2, for full-stop.
113. Added, ibid.
114 Subs. by F.A.O., 1975, Art, 2 and Table, for “Central Government”.
115. This part was numbered as sub-section (3), by the Transfer of Property
(Amdt.) Act, 20 of 1929, s. 34.
116. This part was numbered as sub-section (4), ibid.
117. Sub-section (5) which was previously subs. ibid., for the original fifth
paragraph, has been omitted by the Federal Laws (Revision and Declaration) Ordinance,
1981 (27 of 1981), s. 3 and 2nd Sch.
118. The last paragraph of the section was rep. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 34.
119. Section 69 A ins. ibid., s. 35.
120. The words “for a term of years” rep. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act,
1929 (20 of 1929), s. 36.
121. Subs. ibid., s. 37 for “When, during the continuance of the mortgage, the
mortgagee takes possession of the mortgaged property, he”.
122. Clause (a) was rep., ibid.
123. Subs. ibid., for “its preservation”.
124. Proviso ins. by s. 37 of the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of
1929).
125. Subs. ibid., for certain original words.
126. Subs. ibid., s. 38, for the original section.
127. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 40.
128. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 40.
129. The words “on the mortgage-money” rep., ibid.
130. The word “gross” rep., ibid.
131. Ins. ibid.
132. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 42, for
the original section.
133. Subs. ibid., s. 43, for the original paragraph.
134. Subs. ibid., for “second”.
135. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 44, for
“has become payable”.
136. See the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act 5 of 1908), Sch. I, Order VI, rule
15.
137. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 44, for “if then in his possession or power,”.
138. Ins. ibid.
139. Ins. ibid., s. 45.
140. Subs. ibid., for “as the case may be”.
141. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 45.
142. For the repealed provisions, as re-enacted, see the Code of Civil Procedure,
1908 (Act 5 of 1908), Sch. I, Order XXXIV.
143. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 46, for the Original section.
144. Ss. 92 to 94 were ins. ibid., s. 47.
145. Ss. 95 and 96 were subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of
1929), s. 48, for the original section 95.
146. For the repealed provisions as re-enacted, see the Code of Civil Procedure,
1908 (Act 5 of 1908), Sch. I, Order XXXIV, rules 12 and 13.
147. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 49, for “a mortgage, not being a simple mortgage,
a mortgage by conditional sale, an usufructuary mortgage or an English mortgage or a
combination of the first and third, or the second and third, of such forms”.
148. For the repealed provisions as re-enacted, see Act 5 of 1908, Sch. I, Order
XXXIV, rule 14.
149. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 50, for
“as to a mortgagor shall, so far as may be, apply to the owner of such property, and the
provisions of ss. 81 and 82 shall, so far as may be, apply to such charge”.
150. Ins. ibid., s. 50.
151. Subs. ibid., s. 51, for the original section.
152. Subs. ibid., s. 52, for “Where the person or agent on whom such notice should
be served cannot be found in the said district, or is unknown”.
153. Proviso ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 52.
154. Subs. ibid., for “Where the person or agent to whom such tender should be
made cannot be found within the said district, or is unknown”.
155. Subs. ibid., for “in such Court as last aforesaid”.
156. Ins. ibid., s. 53.
157. As to persons competent to contract, see ss. 11 and 12 of the Contract Act,
1872 (9 of 1872).
158. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 53, for “Chapter XXXI of the Code of Civil
Procedure”.
159. For rules made by different High Courts, see different local Rules and Orders.
160. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 54, for
“tendered or delivered either personally to the party who is intended to be bound by it”.
161. As to limitation to the territorial operation of s. 107, see s. I, supra, s. 107
extends to every cantonment in the Provinces, etc., see s. 287 of the Cantonments Act, 1924
(2 of 1924).
162. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1904 (6 of 1904), s. 5, for the
original paragraph.
163. Ins. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 55.
164. Proviso ins. by Act 6 of 1904, s. 5.
165. Subs. by A.O., 1937, for “L.G.”.
61
166. The words “with the previous sanction of the G.G. in C”. rep., ibid.
167. For notifications by the Provincial Governments, see different local R. and O.
168. Subs. A.O., 1937, for “local official Gazette”.
169. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 56.
170. Subs. ibid., for “during the continuance of the lease”.
171. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 56.
172. The words “or the lease shall become void” rep. by the Transfer of Property
(Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 57.
173. Ins. ibid.
174. Subs. ibid., for “either case”.
175. Subs. ibid., for “does some act showing”.
176. S. 114A ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 58.
177. Subs. by A.O., 1937, for “L.G.”.
178. The words “with the previous sanction of the G.G. in C,” rep. by the
Devolution Act, 1920 (38 of 1920), s. 2 and Sch. 1.
179. For notification issued by the Govt. of Bombay under this section, see
Bombay Gazette, 1910, Pt. I, p. 59. For notification as to Sindh, see ibid.
180. Subs. by A.O., 1937, for “ local official Gazette”.
181. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1904 (6 of 1904), s. 6.
182. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 59, for
the original section.
183. As to limitation to the territorial operation of s. 123, see s. 1, supra. S. 123
extends to every cantonment in the Provinces, etc. – see s. 287 of the Cantonments Act, 1924
(2 of 1924).
184. Ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929), s. 60.
185. Subs. by F.A.O, 1975, Art. 2 and Table, for “Muhammadan”.
186. The words “or, save as provided by section 123, any rule of Hindu or Buddhist
law” rep. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 61.
187. Subs. by the Transfer of Property Act, 1900 (2 of 1900), s. 4, for the original
Chapter VIII.
188. Ins. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 62.
189. The words “and notwithstanding anything contained in s. 123” rep. ibid.
190. Added by the Insurance Act, 1938 (4 of 1938), s. 121.
191. S. 130 A ins. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1944 (6 of 1944),
section 2.
192. Subs. by the Transfer of Property (Amdt.) Act, 1944 (6 of 1944), s. 3, for the
original section 135.
193. S. 135 A ins. ibid., s. 4.

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