Saturday, 30 June 2012

Study Visa Process for China

Methods to Apply in China for studying
1. Exchanges between governments
Handled in the light of the bilateral exchanges agreements between the governments.
2. Inter-college exchanges
Handled in accordance with exchanges agreements between the colleges or universities.
3. Recommendations by communities
Applying by means of China's relevant organizations or directly to related universities or colleges in China by foreign universities or colleges, educational organizations, friendship groups.
4. Individual Applications
Individual students may apply through China's relevant agencies or directly to the relevant universities or colleges in China.
Preparation of Application Materials
1. Application forms for studying in China

2. Physical Examination Record for Foreigners

3. Diplomas of the latest degree, courses learned and transcripts

4. As an extra, recommending letters by two teachers with titles of or above associate professor (or the equivalent) or persons of higher positions for those who apply for Master' degree or doctoral degree studies.

5. Apart from items above, consignee identification of matters in China and certificate of economic guarantee need to be provided in the case of those who are at their own expense.

6. The above materials must be in Chinese or English, or with translation in any of these two languages. Relevant forms may be available from Chinese embassies (consulates) or concerned universities in China.
When to Apply
Foreign students of bilateral exchanges projects between governments should apply through relevant departments of their own countries, which are in charge of choosing and sending students to China, from February 1 to April 30.
Entrance Examinations and Tests
For learners and trainees of Chinese languages, enrollment will be on the basis of competitive selection in light of education certificates.
1. For those to be undergraduates of arts, enrollment will be on the basis of competitive selection in light of degree certificates, medium stage C level certificates of HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi -Chinese Proficiency Test), and the examinations and tests held by the universities.

2. For those to be scientific, medical, agricultural, or technological undergraduates, enrollment will be on the basis of competitive selection in light of degree certificates, primary stage C level of HSK result, and the Admission examinations.

3. Those to be postgraduates ought to have bachelor's degrees certificates, certificates for courses already attended and transcripts, recommendations of two associate professors (or with titles above), and will have to pass the entrance examinations arranged by relevant universities. Only by means of attending courses arranged by the universities and passing courses examinations after they arrive in China can these students gain their qualifications to prepare theses, or otherwise they will have to graduate as trainees. The applicants already in China should attend united postgraduate Admission examinations held by China. The graduates from universities in China and of the same year may be enrolled by universities and colleges in light of China's recommendation admission methods without usual entrance examinations.

4. Applicants for doctoral study must be of Master's degrees, with certificates, list of courses accomplished, two recommendation letters by teachers with titles of associate professor or above, and pass the examinations or tests held by the universities and colleges. Applicants already in China should attend united doctoral students admission examinations held for native students. Foreign postgraduates in China who are qualified of graduating and studying for doctorates ahead of schedule can study for doctoral degrees in advance according to the relevant regulations.

5. The would-be undergraduates, postgraduates and doctoral students of artistic colleges are required to offer the photos or tape records of their artistic works and tutor's recommendations as well.

6. Foreign students who have graduated in China will be granted priority to return for further education.

7. Foreign students, of all types, will be examined by relevant universities, and enrolled on the basis of competitive selection.
The application for change of institution or major and the extension of study of scholarship students
1) The institution, major, research topic and duration of each scholarship student having been set when enrolled, in principle, cannot be changed. If there do exist valid reasons to change, the students shall contact relevant institutions on their own (within the 80 institutions), they should get approved from the institution they are studying at and the institution they want to transfer to. The foreign embassy in China shall note the China Scholarship Council (CSC) together with the approval letters from relevant institutions. After approval, they can make the change.

2) Scholarship students who finish the planned study and want to extend their study in China shall apply to the institution. If agreed, the institution will give the students approval letters. If they want to change to other institutions, they shall submit the approval letter from the target institution. The foreign embassy in China or the competent authority in charge of overseas students in the dispatching country shall note in write the CSC together with the approval letter.

Scholarship granted students
According to the regulations of the Ministry of Public Security, foreign students of governmental scholarships can, with Admission Notice and the Visa Application Form for Studying in China (JW201 form) both delivered by the Chinese universities and Physical Examination Record for Foreigner, submit applications to Chinese embassies and consulates for X visa within due terms.
Self-paid students
Students of in-college exchanges projects and self-paid students chosen by the Chinese universities can, with Admission Notice and the Visa Application Form for Foreigners to Study in China both delivered by the Chinese universities and the Physical Examination Record for Foreigner, submit applications to Chinese embassies and consulates for X visas within due terms.
Those who will stay in China for less than half a year may apply for F visa.
All foreign students shall take the original copies of Admission Notice, Visa Application for Foreigners Wishing to Study in China (JW201) and Physical Examination Record for Foreigner to apply for the Visa to China and enter China with the above original documents. Those with other passports, visas or without the original forms of above mentioned documents cannot register at the institution, and they cannot apply for residence permit in China.undefined

Process of obtaining Canadian Visa

The student visa in Canada is most commonly known as Study permit. Either a student need to obtain or don't need to obtain Canadian study permit depends upon the country of residence of the student. Students from most of the countries need to obtain Canadian student visa to study in Canada, but students from some countries don't have to obtain any Student visa to study in Canada.
Who needs to obtain Canadian student visa
Students from any of the countries listed below will have to obtain study permit or student visa in order to study in Canada:
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
East Timor
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Ivory Coast
Korea, North
Macao S.A.R.
Maldives Islands
Marshall Islands
Micronesia States
Sao Tome e Principe
Saudi Arab
Sierra Leone
Slovak Rep.
South Africa
Sri Lanka
Trinidad and Tobago
United Arab Emirates
International Students in CanadaIf your country is listed in the list above, then you'll have to obtain study permit or student visa to enroll in the University or College to study in Canada.
Who doesn't need to obtain student visa
There are several criteria drawn by the Government of Canada for students who don't require to obtain student visa to study in Canada. These criteria are mentioned below:
  • Students from Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Botswana, Brunei, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel (National Passport holders only), Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Republic of Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, San Marino, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, Slovenia, Switzerland, United States, and Western Samoa don't require to have Canadian student visa to study in Canada.
  • Students who are the permanent resident of United States who hold a Green Card or can present any evidence which show they belong permanently to USA.
  • Students who are the citizens of United Kingdom, either they are in UK or are staying abroad but legally can return back and stay in UK.
  • Students who have a valid Special Administrative Region passport issued by the Government of the Hong Kong.
If you meet any of the above criteria, then students don't need to have Study permit or Canadian student visa to study in Canada
Documents Required for Study Permits in Canada
There are several documents that students will have to present to obtain Student visa for Canada. Those documents are listed below:
  • Completed Application for Study permits
  • A valid passport
  • Two photos of the students and each of the family members. The photograph must not be more that six month old. Back of the photo, the name and date of birth of the person appearing in the photo should be written
  • Proof that shows the educational institution has accepted the student for admission in their institution
  • Evidence of sufficient funds to overcome all the living expenses and study costs in Canada
  • Bank transaction statement of last four months
  • Proof of payment of fee in acceptable format. This format varies according to country and region. However, the most general method is presenting it through Bank Draft
  • Evidence that show students have no criminal records
  • Students from some nations may even need to present medical reports
  • Any other documents that may help for obtaining a Student visa for Canada
Who need to have Medical Reports
Students from Admiralty Islands, Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Ascension, Austral Islands, Azerbaijan, Azores, Bahamas, Bahrain, Balearic Islands, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belau, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bora Bora, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Islands, Cap Vert, Central African Rep. , Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China, Cook Islands, Cooz Islands, Colombia, Comoros - Islamic Federal Republic, Congo - Democratic Republic (Kinshasa), Christmas Island, Congo Republic, Croatia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Easter Island, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon Republic, Gambia, Gambier Islands, Georgia, Paris, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Huahine Island, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Loyalty Islands, Marquesas Islands, Marshall Islands, Midway Islands, New Guinea Islands, Ivory Coast, Johnston Atoll, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kerguelen Islands, Kiribati, Kosrae, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, Macao, Macedonia, Madagascar , Madeira, Maio, Makatea, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali Republic, Maupiti, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Moorea, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Britain, New Caledonia, New Guinea Mainland, New Hebrides, New Ireland, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue Island, North Korea, Northern Mariana, Northern Sinai, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Ponape, Portugal, Raiatea, Reunion, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Sabah, Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome e Principe, Sarawak, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Society Archipelago, Solomon Islands, Somali Republic, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Helena, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Syria, Tahaa, Tahiti, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Tokelau Islands, Togo, Tonga, Tristan Da Cunha, Truk Island, Tuamotu Archipelago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, U.S. Trust Territory of Pacific Island, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wake Island, Wallis and Futuna, Western Sahara, Western Samoa, Yap Islands, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Visa Application Fee
The visa processing fee is $125 per application for Canadian Student visa. The method of paying this fee varies country to country. For visa fee payment, personal cheque cannot be used.
Visa processing time for Canadian Student Visa
The processing time varies depending upon the individual case for the individual applicants. The processing time for Canadian student visa may be from a week to months long.

Study Visa process for australia

Any person who intends to undertake full-time study in a registered course in Australia needs to obtain a Australian Student Visa. A Student Visa permits the holder to travel to, enter and remain in Australia for the duration of the registered course of study. Overseas students cannot undertake part-time study in Australia and must leave Australia on completion of their course of study.
Student Visa Processing
Student visa applicants from India, Nepal and Bhutan are required to undergo a Pre-Visa Assessment (PVA).
Persons wishing to study in Australia should apply on form 157A and pay the current visa application charge.
Documentation to submit with your application:
  1. Four recent passport-style photographs for each applicant
  2. Supplementary Questionnaire to Form 157A
  3. Completed 'details of relatives' form
  4. IELTS test results
  5. Changes to the student visa regulations require varying evidence of funds dependent on the subclass of student visa applied for. Applicants should show funds and (income that support these funds) enough to cover, course fee, and living costs in Australia (AUD 12,000 pa) as well as amounts covering other family members. For details relating to the specific financial evidentiary requirements for each subclass
  6. All original education documents including all mark sheets for Degrees
  7. Affidavit of support from the person providing financial support
  8. For applicants below 18 years of age, details of arranged guardianship in Australia plus an affidavit from the student's parents agreeing to the guardianship arrangement
  9. Bank statement from the person(s) providing support outlining transactions for the past 6 months
Processing Times
Student applicants should lodge applications no more than 3 months and at least 8 weeks before course commencement dates. Some applications take longer to process. Students may be asked to undertake further medicals and some delays may be experienced due to the need to verify bank or education documents.  Nepalese and Bhutanese applicants need to take into account the time taken for documents and letters to be sent and received by the Visa Office.
To be granted a student visa you will need
1. complete relevant parts of the visa application form and lodge it along with
  1. a copy of your letter of offer or Electronic Confirmation of Enrolment (eCoE)
  2. supporting documentation specified in the appropriate booklet from the Temporary Entry: Overseas Students series, and
  3. payment of the visa application charge.
2. satisfy the student visa requirements
Major changes to Australia's student visa assessment procedures came into effect on 1 July 2001 to streamline visa processing. The restructured student visa programme replaces the gazetted/non-gazetted country arrangement and the Special Entry Arrangements for PRC students. The Student (Temporary) Visa now has:
  1. visa sub-classes: for each education sector You should apply under the visa sub-class for your principal course of study.
  2. country assessment levels (CAL): Each education sector in each country is ranked according to four assessment levels.
  3. evidentiary standards: These visa requirements include English language proficiency and are increasingly stringent from CAL 1 through to CAL 4.
  4. electronic confirmation of enrolment (eCoE): The only accepted evidence of enrolment for processing student visa applications.
Generally, an international student is issued a multiple entry visa for the duration of their study course in Australia. This allows you to travel backwards and forwards to Australia within the period for which it has been granted. Members of your immediate family (spouse and unmarried dependent children under 18 years of age) may accompany you to Australia and will be considered in the same visa class as yourself. If you wish to extend your stay in Australia for further study you will need to lodge an application for a further visa.
Australian Quarantine Regulations
Australian quarantine is needed to keep out exotic pests and diseases that could affect native plants and animals, human health, agricultural industries and our environment. This role is undertaken by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS). Visit the AQIS website for information in a range of foreign languages on what you cannot bring into Australia and what your family and friends at home cannot send to you through the mail.

How to obtain a UK Visa?

Immigration and student visa Information for UK
For EEA Students
If you are a student from EEA country that is - European Union plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, then you can enter United Kingdom with minimum formalities. If you are from EEA then it is so easy for you to enter UK that you don't even need to obtain UK Student visa. However, you'll be asked to present evidences that you have been approved for the course of study you have selected and you have sufficient funds to stay and study in United Kingdom. In addition to this, you'll also need a valid passport.Indian Student in UK with Cricket Bat

For Non EEA Students
If you do not belong to EEA (European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) then you'll have to fulfill some immigration requirements. Students belonging to many countries will need to obtain a British Student Visa to study in UK. They can do this at the British Embassy, High Commission or Consulate of Britain. Students from some Commonwealth countries where obtaining a student visa is not compulsory must also have to get entry clearance before leaving their home. This is to make sure a Right of Appeal in the unlikely event that entry is refused. To verify either you need to obtain a visa or not, visit Foreign and Commonwealth Office web page at
Documents Required to Obtain British Student Visa
  1. A valid passport
  2. A letter of unconditional acceptance for a full-time course from a university
  3. Mark sheets of previously joined exams
  4. Evidence of your financial ability to meet, without working in the UK, the costs of your course, accommodation and maintenance and to support any dependants accompanying you.
  5. Letters of recommendations are appreciated
Time of validity of the student visa to be received is usually determined by the length of your course of study.
When you arrive in the United Kingdom, an immigration officer may question you, so don't forget to take all relevant documents in your hand luggage.
Student Visa Doesn't Allow
  1. working more than 20 hrs per week.
  2. your placement is part of your studies, has the agreement of your education institution and leads to a degree or qualification awarded by a nationally recognized examining body
  3. do business, be self-employed or provide services as a professional sportsperson or entertainer
  4. work full-time in a permanent job

Passport stickers, stamp and length of stay
When you apply for a student visa at a British Embassy, Consulate or High Commission outside the UK, you will receive a sticker known as vignette, in your passport with the conditions and length of stay. When you arrive at the airport, you will receive a stamp to show when you entered the United Kingdom.

If you are applying for entry at a port of entry (you can only do this if you are from a non visa required nation), you will get a stamp in your passport with conditions and length of stay.

Most of the overseas students (from outside the European Union) are initially given the right to stay for one year. But there is nothing to worry about, if you want to stay longer as a student then you may extend your visa validity length as a student.

The Immigration Officer may endorse on your passport with any other restriction that may apply to you.

Full process of USA study visa

1. How to Apply for USA Study Visa

To apply for a student visa, fill out the forms DS-156, DS-158 (and DS-157 if you are male between the ages 16-45 years, and pay the USD $100 application fees. Bank will provide you with an appointment date and time. If this date is after the reporting date noted on your I-20 (or DS-2019 for exchange student programs), you should notify the staff at Bank and they will provide you with an earlier appointment if possible. Student visa applicants must also pay a USD $100 fee.

2. What documents are required and not required? (Is a police report required? Is property evaluation essential?)
You should come to the interview with your original I-20 issued by the academic institution where you intend to study, all academic records (SLC, +2 certificate, etc.), and any evidence if financial resources to show that you can afford your education. While there are no specific financial documents required, you should feel free to bring everything you believe would support your case. Consular officers prefer to see at least six months transaction history from your bank accounts. A police certificate is not necessary for student visa applicants. All documents submitted should be genuine – if the consular officer at any time believes you have submitted a false document, you will be refused the visa and the document(s) could be turned over to the police.
3. Do I need to bring a bank statement or a 6-month transaction statement? Can bank statements be from any bank?
Consular officers prefer to see at least six months transaction history from each of your bank accounts. Bank statements can be from any bank, savings and loan or credit agency.
4. Can someone in the US be my sponsor?
Yes. You many have family or close friends in the U.S. who are able and willing to support you financially while you are in school. However, this sponsorship must be genuine. Every consular officer must believe the legitimacy of your financial evidence and it is extremely important that you are honest during the interview.
5. If I am denied a visa the first time I apply, how can I appeal?
You are permitted to apply for a visa three times within one year. For the benefit of the applicants, the Consular Section’s policy is, to the extent possible, to appoint a different interviewing officer for subsequent applications. If you are refused a visa three times in one year, you must wait six months since your last refusal. There is no formal appeal process.
6. What are my chances the second time if I was denied a visa the first time? Is it better to apply with the same I-20 or a different one?
Each applicant’s case is different, but generally consular officers encourage you to wait until your circumstances have change or you have additional evidence that was not presented during your first interview before reapplying. The academic institution you choose to attend (and the I-20 you present) should be the one that is best suited to your academic interests and financial resources.
7. Does it matter in what order my documents are arranged?
For the purpose of the interview, it is easier if your academic records are presented first (in chronological order starting from SLC), followed by your financial information. Any other supporting documents, e.g., character references or extracurricular certificated, should be presented last.
8. How long is a visa interview?
At most Embassies around the world, visa interviews last roughly 2 minutes. However, we try to give you as much consideration as possible depending upon the volume of applicants that must be interviewed. Interviews typically will range from 2 to 10 minutes in duration depending upon the case.
9. What is the wait period for a visa appointment? What is the time line for after the appointment?
During the high visa season (summer and winter), the waiting period for a visa interview may be as long as one month. If you qualify for the visa at the time of your interview, your visa will be ready within 24 hours. The Consular Section encourages you to apply as soon as possible, but no earlier than 90 days prior to the reporting date noted on your I-20.
10. Can I bring many I-20s to my visa Interview?
Yes, you can bring all of your I-20s to the interview, but you will need to have identified, and paid the USD $100 SEVIS fee, for the academic institution that has accepted you. You must bring the I-20 for the school you plan to attend.
11. I heard that if I wear black for my interview, I won’t get a visa, Is this true?
Absolutely not. You are welcome to wear any color of clothing to the interview.
12. I heard that the lady visa consular officer is really strict. Will my chances decrease if I get her as my interviewer?
No. Every consular officer gives each applicant every consideration consistent with U.S. immigration law. At the time of the interview, the officer must believe that you intend to study, that you are able to maintain full-time student status in the U.S., and that you can afford the school.
13. If I paid my SEVIS fee on one I-20, and now I’ve decided to use another I-20, do I need to somehow transfer my payment? How do I do this?
Yes, you should contact the school you intend to attend and ask them to amend your SEVIS record to reflect the change. Please refer to the following website for the further information:
14. If I am granted a student visa for one college and decide to transfer to a second college while I am in the US, do I need to get my visa renewed? Is there a fee for this?
You do not need a new visa as long as you have a valid I-20 and a valid visa.
15. Are there any colleges that the US Embassy has ‘blacklisted’ (i.e. the Embassy will not grant visas to attend these colleges)?
No, the Embassy accepts I-20s and visa applications for all accredited education institutions in the United States. When you apply for a college in the U.S. you should make sure that it is an accredited institution. In case of doubt, please consult the Educational Advising Center at the U.S. Educational Foundation Nepal at Gyaneshwor.
16. Do some Nepali students who are granted a visa have problems or are denied at the point of entry in the US?
The F-1 student visa provides you only with the authorization to ask for admission into the U.S. from the U.S. Bureau of Citizen and Immigration Services at the point of entry. Typically, however, Nepali student visa holders are granted admission.
17. Do my chances of a student visa for a college increase or decrease if many Nepali students are already at that college?
No. The number of Nepali students at any particular school has no bearing on your qualifications for a student visa.
18. Is it important to have a scholarship to get a visa?
Scholarships can be very important if your family will have difficulty paying for your education and living expenses in the United States. Many schools provide tuition waivers for all international students while others provide financial aid packages for students with low incomes. The Embassy encourages all prospective students to plan well ahead, apply to schools early and investigate opportunities for financial aid through the school directly. There are no fees for applying for scholarships or financial aid in the United States.
19. Does it make a difference if the school I apply to is a public or private school in terms of getting a student visa?
No, the type of school has no bearing on your qualifications for a student visa.
20. If I have relative in influential positions, will I get a student visa if they speak to you?
No, your application has to stand on its own merits.
21. To cut costs, I’ll be living with my brother and cousin when I get to the US. Will this count against me when applying for a student visa?
We consider all sources of income and support when considering whether you can afford you educational expenses.
22. My siblings have all settled in the US. Will this influence my being granted a student visa?
As a student visa applicant, you must convince the consular officer that you have the ability, intent and means to study in the U.S. The officer also must believe that you have a residence abroad to which you intend to return after finishing your education.
23. I’m from a underprivileged class in Nepal. Will this count for or against me?
Consular officers do not consider an applicant’s caste or ethnicity during an interview.
24. If I have disabilities or health problems, will these count against me?
No. Again, if you can convince the officer that you have the ability, intent and means to study in the U.S., you may qualify for the visa
25. I’ve taken and educational loan from a Nepali bank to pay for my education in the US. Will this count against me?
Not necessarily. As long as you can show that you have the means to re-pay the loans without resorting to illegal employment in the U.S. this will not be counted against you.
26. I’d like to go to the US as a transfer student. Do my chances increase or decrease for a student visa?
Neither. If you have a poor academic record, getting good marks at a local university can help convince the interviewing officer that you have the ability to study in the U.S. Other factors, such as the intent and means to study in the U.S. are also factors and officer considers during an interview.
27. I’ve completed my master’s in Nepal and want to get my second master’s in the US. Will this count against me when applying for a student visa?
No. If you have good reasons for seeking a second master’s degree and can convince the interviewing officer that you have the ability, intent and means to study in the U.S., you will likely qualify for the visa.
28. I haven’t taken the TOEFL or the IELTS, or any of the other standardized tests. Will this count against me?
Most academic institutions require the TOEFL, results for admission. Standardized test help demonstrate your ability to study, but are only one of the things an interviewing officer considers. You will not be refused the visa solely on the basis that you have not taken one of the tests.
29. Is the IELTS as recognized as the TOEFL?
All standardized tests are considered when the interviewing officer assesses whether or not an applicant possesses the ability to be a successful student.
30. Can I call the US Embassy if I have a question specific to my case?
We hope that the answers in this FAQ will help answer you questions. Specific questions about your case are best asked at the time of your interview.

Immigration Law : IELTS and details regarding it

The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is an internationally owned and globally recognized direct English language assessment of the highest quality and integrity readily available throughout the world.  IELTS test is a highly dependable, practical and valid English language assessment primarily used by those seeking international education, professional recognition, bench-marking to international standards and global mobility. IELTS exam is owned, developed and delivered through the partnership of the British Council, IDP: IELTS Australia and the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. IELTS test helps students show their ability to take the courses in English. The universities - mostly from UK, Canada, and Australia, seek for IELTS test report as an admission requirement. The score that students must obtain for eligible in the University depends upon the course and the university chosen.

Format of IELTS

All candidates must complete four Modules - Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking to obtain an IELTS Test Report Form. Candidates are tested in Listening, , Writing and Speaking.  All candidates take the same Listening and Speaking Modules.  There is a choice between Academic and General Training in the and Writing Modules.
Total Test Duration:  2 hours 45 minutes
The first three modules - Listening, and Writing - must be completed in one day.  The Speaking Module may be taken, at the discretion of the test centre, in the period seven days before or after the other Modules. The tests are designed to cover the full range of ability from non-user to expert user.

Here Sample questions of IELTS are given for you to practice as well as to built concept about the IELTS question pattern. This IELTS practice paper will help you to score more in IELTS.

SECTION 2       Questions 11- 20
Questions 11- 15.
Choose the correct letters A, B or C.
11. The most important reason for a settlement at the Rocks was
fresh water.
flat rock.
a sea wall.
12 The plague was brought to Sydney by
13 The Harbour Bridge was built
in 10 years with 7 deaths.
in 10 years with 17 deaths.
in 17 years with 10 deaths.
14 The Chinese community arrived in the Rocks in
15 The Chinese shops were mainly
restaurants and laundries.
soap shops and general stores.
general stores and laundries.
Questions 16 – 20
Complete the table below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Number of convicts brought to
New South Wales 16 ..................................
Date of last convict ship 17 ..................................
Age of youngest convict nine
Crime of youngest convict 18 ..................................
Age of oldest convict 19 ..................................
Crime of oldest convict telling lies
Most serious crime murder
Reason for most crimes 20 ..................................
Questions 1–5
Complete the summary below using words from the box.
Write the correct answers in boxes 1–5 on your answer sheet.
The failureduring the late 1970s and early 1980s of an attempt to establish a widespread wind power industry in the United States
resulted largely from the 1..... in oil prices during this period. The industry is now experiencing a steady 2..... due to improvements in technology and an increased awareness of the potential in the power of wind. The wind turbines that are now being made, based in part on the 3..... of wide-ranging research in Europe, are easier to manufacture and maintain than their predecessors. This has led wind-turbine makers to be able to standardise and thus minimise 4..... . There has been growing 5..... of the importance of wind power as an energy source.
design costs
operating costs
production costs
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The chart below shows the different modes of transportation used to travel to and from work in one European city, in 1950, 1970 and 1990.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below.
Write at least 150 words
Modes of transport and year
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Present a written argument or case to an educated reader with no specialist knowledge of the following topic.
As computers are being used more and more in education, there will soon be no role for the teacher in the classroom.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience and support your arguments with examples and relevant evidence.
Write at least 250 words.
Example Part 2
Describe a teacher who has greatly influenced you in your education.
    You should say:
          where you met them
          what subject they taught
          what was special about them
and explain why this person influenced you so much.
You will have to talk about the topic for 1 to 2 minutes.
You have one minute to think about what you are going to say.
You can make some notes to help you if you wish.
These are the example question for IELTS test. Real test question will be different, but similar to this one.

Read Hamood ur Rehman Commission Report

The Commission is headed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Mr. Justice Hamoodur Rahman. The other two members of the Commission are Mr. Justice S. Anwarul Haq, Judge, Supreme Court of Pakistan and Mr. Justice Tufail Ali Abdur Rahman, Chief Justice of Sindh and Baluchistan High Court. Lt. Gen (Retd) Altaf Qadir and Mr. M.A Latif, Assistant Registrar of the Supreme Court of Pakistan are Military Adviser and Secretary of the Commission, respectively. The Commission which had started its proceedings in camera in Rawalpindi on the 1st February, 1972 recorded evidence of 213 witnesses.

Lt Gen. Niazi signing the instrument of surrender in Dhaka
with India's then Eastern Command, Lt. Gen, Jagjit Singh Arora, 1971
After  the prisoners of war and the civil personnel who had also been interned with the military personnel in India returned to Pakistan [in 1974], the Commission[  recommenced] the enquiry. In the meantime a number of questionnaires were issued to various persons, including those who were at the helm of affairs in East Pakistan, at the relevant time and others whom we considered likely to have relevant knowledge. Statements were also sent from members of armed forces, civil services and the police services involved and we then proceeded after scrutiny of these statements to summon the witnesses. We recorded evidence  of as many as 72 persons and these included particularly Lt. Gen. A.A.K. Niazi, Commander Eastern Command, Major Generals Farman Ali, Jamshed and Maj. Gen. Rahim was reexamined. 
Scheme of Supplementary Report.
Chapter 1: The moral aspect
Chapter 2: Alleged atrocities by the Pakistan Army
Chapter 3: Professional responsibility of certain Senior Army Commanders
Chapter 4: Conclusions
Chapter 5: Recommendation Annexure: The sequence of the signals
Chapter I 
After analysing the evidence brought before the Commission, we came to the conclusion that the process of moral degeneration among the senior ranks of the Armed Forces was set in motion by their involvement in Martial Law duties in 1958, that these tendencies reappeared and were, in fact, intensified when Martial Law was imposed in the country once again in March 1969 by General Yahya Khan, and that there was indeed substance in the allegations that a considerable number of senior Army Officers had not only indulged in large scale acquisition of lands and houses and other commercial activities, but had also adopted highly immoral and licentious ways of life which seriously affected their professional capabilities and their qualities of leadership.
The civil administration in EastPakistan practically came to a standstill,  and the burden of running the Province fell heavily upon the Army Officers.  Their involvement in civil administration continued unabated even after the induction of a sizable number of senior civil servants from West Pakistan, including the Chief Secretary, the Inspector General of Police and at least two Division Commissioners. According to the Inspector General of Police, Mr. M.A.K Chaudhry (Witness No. 219), "after the disturbances of March-April 1971, there was a parallel Martial Law administration at all levels.
All wings of administration, relating to law and order were under the control of Martial Law Authorities. A West Pakistan Deputy Inspector General of Police in the field was not permitted by the local Martial Law Authorities to come to the Provincial Headquarters" for a conference with the Inspector General of Police. The observations made in this behalf by Maj Gen.  Rao Farman Ali, are worth quoting: "A fully civil government could not be formed in East Pakistan as had been announced by the ex-President. Dr. Malik an old man and politician, had a weak personality. He could not annoy, the Martial Law Administrator (Lt. Gen. A.A.K. Niazi) also because of the unsettled conditions obtaining in the Wing. Gen Niazi, on the other hand, cherished and liked power, but did not have the breadth of vision or ability to understand political implications. He did not display much respect for the civilian Governor. 
According to Rear Admiral M. Sharif (Witness No. 283) who was the  Flag Officer Commanding the Pakistan Navy in East Pakistan, "the foundation of this defeat was laid way back in 1958 when the Armed Forces took over the country ...". While learning the art of politics in this newly assigned role to themselves, they gradually abandoned their primary function of the art of soldiering, they also started amassing wealth and usurping status for themselves."
Living off the Land 
There is evidence to the effect that civilian shops and stores were broken into by the troops without preparing any record of what was taken and from where. This appears to us to be the genesis of the looting alleged to have been indulged in by the Army in East Pakistan. Lt. Gen Niazi, remarks [were] quoted by us in an earlier chapter, viz: "what have I been hearing about shortage of rations? Are not there any cows and goats in this country? This is enemy territory. Get what you want. This is what we used to do in Burma." (vide Maj Gen Farman Ali's Evidence). 
Glaring Cases of Moral Lapses Amongst
Officers Posted in East Pakistan
(1) Lt. Gen A.A.K. Niazi
 From the mass of evidence coming before the Commission from witnesses, both civil and military, there is little doubt that Gen. Niazi unfortunately came to acquire a bad reputation in sex matters, and this reputation has been consistent during his postings in Sialkot, Lahore and East Pakistan. The allegations regarding his indulgence in the export of  Pan by using or abusing his position in the Eastern Command and as Zonal Martial Law Administrator also prima facie appear to be well-founded,  although it was not our function to hold a detailed inquiry into the matter. It is for the Government to decide whether these matters should also form the subject of any inquiry or trial which may have to be ultimately held against this officer. 
2) Maj Gen Mohammad Jamshed, former GOC 36 (A) 
Division, East Pakistan.Col. Bashir Ahmad Khan (Witness No. 263) who was posted as DDML, Eastern Command, stated before the Commission that the wife of Maj Gen Jamshed Khan had brought some currency with her while being evacuated from Dacca on the morning of 16th of December 1971. He further alleged that Lt. Col Rashid, Col. Staff o the East Pakistan Civil Armed Forces, commanded by Maj Gen Jamshed Khan, was also reported to have been involved in the mis-appropriation of currency
(3) Brig Jehanzeb Arbab, former Commander 57 Brigade.
(4) Lt. Col. (Now Brig) Muzaffar Ali Khan Zahid, former CO 31 field Regiment.
(5) Lt. Col. Basharat Ahmad, former CO 18 Punjab
(6) Lt. Col. Mohammad Taj, CO 32 Punjab
(7) Lt. Col Mohammad Tufail, Col 55 Field Regiment
(8) Major Madad Hussain Shah, 18 Punjab The evidence of Maj Gen Nazar Hussain Shah (Witness No. 242 GOC 16 Div, Maj Gen M.H Ansari (Witness NO. 233) GOC, 9 Div, as well as of Brig Baqir Siddiqui (Witness No. 218) Chief of Staff, Eastern Command, disclosed that these officers and their units were involved in large scale looting, including the theft of Rs. 1,35,00,000 from the National Bank Treasury at Siraj Gaj. We were informed that a Court o Inquiry was convened under the Chairmanship of Maj Gen M.H Ansari who  could not complete the inquiry owing to the outbreak of war. The GHQ representative was not able to inform us as to what action had ultimately been taken by GIIQ in respect of these officers, except that Brig Jehanzeb Arabab had been appointed to officiate as GOC of a Division. The Commission feels that this appointment, before the completion of the inquiry and exoneration of the officer from any blame, was highly inadvisable on the part of the GHQ. We recommend that action should now be taken without delay to finalise the proceedings of the inquiry commenced by Maj Gen Ansari in East Pakistan. 

Chapter II 
Let it not be forgotten that the initiative in resorting to violence and cruelty was taken by the militants of the Awami League, during the month of March, 1971, following General Yahya Khan's announcement of the Ist of March regarding the postponement of the session of the National Assembly scheduled for the 3rd of March 1971. Harrowing tales of these atrocities were narrated by the large number of West Pakistanis and Biharis who were able to escape from these places and reach the safety of West Pakistan. The crimes committed by the AwamiLeague miscreants were bound to arouse anger and bitterness inthe minds of the troops.
Lt. Gen. A.A.K. Niazi, apparently in an endeavour to put the blame on his predecessor, then Lt. Gen. Tikka Khan, stated that damage done during those early earned for the military leaders names such as "Changez Khan" and"Butcher of East Pakistan." He went on to add: "on the assumption of command I was very much concerned with the discipline of troops, and on 15th of April, 1971, that is within four days of my command, I addressed a letter to all formations located in the area and insisted that loot, rape, arson, killing of people at random must stop. I had come to know that looted material had been sent to West Pakistan which included cars, refrigerators and air conditioners etc."  Another significant statement was made in this regard by Maj. Gen. Rao Barman Ali, Adviser to the Governor of East Pakistan namely: "Harrowing tales of rape, loot, arson, harassment, and of insulting and degrading behaviour were narrated in general terms.... I wrote out an instruction to act as a guide for decent behaviour and recommended action required to be taken to win over the hearts of the people. This instruction under General Tikka Khan's signature was sent to Eastern Command. I found that General Tikka's position was also deliberately undermined and his instructions ignored...excesses were explained away by false and concocted stories and figures." Indiscriminate killing and looting could only serve the cause of the enemies of Pakistan. In the harshness, we lost the support of the silent majority of the people of East Pakistan.... The Comilla Cantt massacre (on 27th/28th of March, 1971) under the orders of CO 53 Field Regiment, Lt. Gen. Yakub Malik, in which 17 Bengali Officers and 915 men were just slain by a flick  of one Officer's fingers should suffice as an example. There was a general feeling of hatred against Bengalis amongst the soldiers and officers including Generals. There were verbal instructions to eliminate Hindus. 
Question of Responsibility
For almost three years now, the world has repeatedly heard a list of 195 names said to have been prepared by the Dacca authorities in connection with the commission of these atrocities and crimes. As the Commission has not been supplied with a copy of this list, it is not possible for us to comment upon the justification or otherwise of the inclusion of any particular names therein. The falsity of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's repeated allegation that Pakistani troops had raped 200,000 Bengali girls in 1971 was borne out when the abortion team he had commissioned from Britain in early 1972 found that its workload involved the termination of only a hundred or more pregnancies. 

Chapter III 
 There, however, still remains the question of determining whether any disciplinary action is called for against certain senior army commanders for their failings in the discharge of their professional duties in the conduct ad prosecution of the war in East Pakistan. 
Nature of Disciplinary Action
We find that there are several provisions in the Pakistan Army Act 1952 having a direct bearing on this matter. In the first place, there is section 24 which is in the following terms:- "24. Offences in relation to enemy and punishable with death.  Section 25 is also relevant [i.e.] Offences in relation to the enemy and not punishable with death. Finally, there is section 55 which is of a general nature, and provides;- "55. Violation of good order and discipline-Any person subject to this Act who is guilty of any act, conduct, disorder and of military discipline shall , on conviction by court martial, be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years, or with such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned".
Need and Justification for Trial and Punishment
The Commission feels that there is consensus on the imperative need to book these senior army commanders who have brought disgrace and defeat to Pakistan. We believe that such action would not only satisfy the nations demand for punishment where it is deserved, but would also serve to emphasise the concept of professional accountability which appears to have been forgotten by senior army officers since their involvement in politics, civil administration and Martial Law duties. 
Cases Requiring Action by Way of Court Martial 8. Judged in the light of this analysis of the events leading to the surrender of our surrender of our Army in East Pakistan, and the relevant provisions of the Pakistan Army Act and the considerations thereto, as outlined in the preceding paragraphs, we are of the considered opinion that the following senior officers ought to be tried by court martial on the charges listed against them , and we recommend accordingly. 
(1) Lt Gen A.A.K. Niazi, Commander, Eastern Command
(i) That he wilfully failed to appreciate the imminence of all-out war with India.
(ii) That he displayed utter lack of professional competence, initiative and foresight, expected of an Army .
(xiii) That he was guilty of conduct unbecoming a Officer and Commander of his rank and seniority in that he acquired a notorious reputation for sexual immorality and indulgence in the smuggling of Pan from East to West Pakistan; 
(xv) That, on repatriation to Pakistan, he deliberately adopted a false and dishonest stand to the effect that he was willing and able to fight but was ordered to surrender by General Yahya Khan, and that as a dutiful soldier he had no option but to obey the said order against his best judgement.
(xvi) It has come to the notice of the Commission that during his period of captivity, and even after repatriation to Pakistan, Lt. Gen. A.A.K. Niazi assisted by his Chief of Staff, Brig. Baqir Siddiqui, has been makign efforts to influence his Divisional and Brigade Commanders, by threats and inducements, so as to persuade them to present a coorinated story of the events in East Pakistan with a view to mitigating his own responsibility for the debacle 2. Maj Gen Mohammad Jamshed, ex-JOC 36 (ad hoc) Division, Dacca
(i) That having been appointed as GOC 36 (ad hoc) Division for the express purpose of taking over from 14 Div., major responsibility for the defence of Dacca, he wilfully failed to plan for the same.
(iv) That he showed complete lack of courage and will to fight in that he acquiesced in the decision of the Commander, Eastern Command, to surrender. 
(3) Maj Gen M. Rahim Khan, ex-GOC 3. We had occasion to  comment upon the conduct of Maj GenRahim Khan,  who abandoned his Division and evacuated his Divisional HQ from Chandpur , with no replacement, and with the consequence that his Division disintegrated. In the light of the information now available we now consider that he should be tried by a court martial on the following charges: 
(i) That he shameful cowardice and undue regard for his personal safety in seeking, and obtaining, permission from the Eastern Command to abandon his Division and vacate his Divisional Headquarters from Chandpur on the 8th of December 1971, simply because Chandpur was threatened by the enemy, with the result that he deserted his troops and his area of responsibility in the middle of the war with India; 
(ii) That his wilful insistence on moving by day against competent advise, owing to fear of Mukti Bahini, caused the death of fourteen Naval ratings and four officers of his own HQ, besides injuries to several others, and to himself due to strafing by Indian aircraft;
(iii) That in his anxiety to get away from Chandpur, he wilfully abandoned valuable signal equipment with the result that the communication system of the Division disintegrated and his subordinate commanders and troops were left to their own fate;
(iv) That he on the 12th of December, 1971, by word of mouth,,, caused alarm and despondency that "it is all over , let us call it a day"' and that the Mukti Bahini might resort to massacre'
(v) That he wilfully avoided submitting a debriefing report to GHQ, on being specially evacuated to Pakistan in early 1971, so as to conceal the circumstances of his desertion from his Div HQ at Chandpur with the consequence that the authorities were persuaded to appoint hi as Chief of the General Staff without any knowledge of his performance in East Pakistan.
4. Brig. G.M. Baqir Siddiqui, former COS, Eastern Command, Dacca
(i) That he wilfully collaborated with, and assisted, the Commander, Eastern Command, in sending unduly pessimistic and alarming reports and signals to GHQ with a view to elicit permission to surrender, as he had also lost the will to fight owing to his culpable negligence and failure in the performance of his professional duties as the Chief of Staff of the Eastern Command;
(vi) That he wilfully, and for motives and reasons difficult to understand and appreciate stopped the implementation of denial plans with the result that large quantities of valuable war materials were handed over intact to the Indian forces after the surrender, in spite of the fact the GHQ had specifically ordered by their of the 10th December 1971 to carry out denial plans; 
(ix)That he was unduly friendly with the enemy during the period of his captivity, so much so that he was allowed to go out shopping in Calcutta, a facility not allowed to anyone else by the Indians;
5. Brig Mohammad Hayat, former Comd. 107 bde. (9 Div)
(iii) That on a report that enemy tanks had broken through the defences of Jessore he, without even verifying the same, shamefully abandoned the fortress of Jessore without a fight on the 6th of December 1971, delivering intact to the enemy all supplies and ammunition dumps stocked in the fortress, and without issuing any orders to his unit in contact with the enemy, who had to fight their own way during the following night.
(iv) That after abandoning Jessore without contact with the enemy, he withdrew to khulna in wilful and intentional violation of the clear orders of G.Q.C. 9 Division to withdraw to Magura in the event of a forced withdrawal fro jessore, thus making it impossible for the Divisional Commander to give battle to the enemy across the Madhumati River.
6. Brig. Mohammad Asla Niazi, former Cod., 53 Bde (39Ad hoc Div.)
(iii) That he shamefully abandoned the Fortress of Laksham on or about the 9th of December 1971, which it was his duty to defend;
(v) That he wilfully acted in callous disregard of military ethics in abandoning at Laksha 124 sick and wounded with two Medical Officers who were deliberately not informed about the proposed vacation of the fortress; and
(vi) That while vacating the fortress of laksha he wilfully and intentionally abandoned all heavy weapons, stocks of ammunition and supplies for the use of the enemy, without implementing the denial plan;
Before we conclude this part of the discussion, we would like to place on record that, apart from a few individuals, the large body of Officers and men operating in East Pakistan accepted the final decision without any thought of disobedience only owing to their ingrained sense of discipline, and the majority of them would have been undoubtedly willing to fight to the last and lay down their lives for the glory of Pakistan. The gallantry and determination with which some of the battles were fought in East Pakistan has been acknowledged even by the enemy.

Chapter IV 
Even more painful than the military failures of lt. Gen Niazi is the story of the abjeet manner in which he agreed to sign the surrender document laying down arms to the so-called joint-command of India and Mukti Bahini, to be present at the Airport to receive the victorious Indian General Aurora, to present a guard of honour to the Indian General, and then to participate in the public surrender ceremony at the Race Course, to the everlasting shame of Pakistan and its Armed forces. Even if he had been obliged to surrender, by force of circumstances, it was not necessary for him to behave in this shameful manner at every step of the process of surrender. the detailed accounts which have been given before the commission by those who had the misfortune of witnessing  these events, leave no doubt that Lt. Gen Nizai had suffered a complete moral collapse during the closing phases of the war While undoubtedly the responsibility for these failures lies with the Commander, Eastern Command, GHQ cannot escape its responsibility, as the plan had been approved by it. It was also the responsibility of GHQ to correct the mistakes of the Eastern Command, as communications were open to the last. It was incumbent upon GHQ to guide, direct and influence the conduct of the war in the Eastern Theatre, if the Commander himself in that Theatre was incapable of doing so. But the GHQ failed in this important duty. The Commander-in-Chief remained indifferent.

Chapter V 
(i) That General Yahya Kina, General Abdul Hamid Khan, Lt. Gen. S.G.M.M. Pirzada, Lt. Gen. Gul Hasan, Maj. Gen. Umar and Maj Gen Mitha should be publicly tried for being party to a criminal conspiracy to illegally usurp power from F.M. Mohammad Ayub Khan in power if necessary by the use of force. In furtherance of their common purpose they did actually try to influence political parties by threats, inducements and even bribes to support their designs both for bringing about a particular kind of result during the elections of 1970, and later persuading some of the political parties and the elected members of the National Assembly to refuse to attend the session of the National Assembly scheduled to be held at Dacca on the 3rd of March, 1971. They, furthermore, in agreement with each other brought about a situation in East Pakistan which led to a civil disobedience movement, armed revolt by the Awami League and subsequently tot he surrender of our troops in East Pakistan and the dismemberment of Pakistan: 
(ii) That the Officers mentioned in No. (i) above should also be tried for criminal neglect of duty in the conduct of war both in East Pakistan and West Pakistan. The details of this neglect would be found in the Chapters dealing with the military aspect of the war 
(iii) That Lt. Gen. Irshad Ahmad Khan, former Commander 1 Corps, be tried for criminal and wilful neglect of duty in conducting the operations of his Corps in such a manner that nearly 500 villages of the Shakargarh tehsil of Sialkot district in West Pakistan were surrendered to the enemy without a light and as a consequence the Army offensive in the south was seriously jeopardised; 
(iv) That Maj Gen Abid Zahid, former GOC 15 Div, be tried for wilful neglect of duty and shameful surrender of a large area comprising nearly 98 villages in the phuklian salient in the Sialkot district of West Pakistan, which surrender also posed a standing threat to the safety of Marala Headworks by bringing the Indian forces within nearly 1500 yards thereof. He also kept the GHQ in the dark about Indian occupation of the Phuklian salient until the loss was discovered after the war. 
(v) That Maj. Gen B.M. Mustafa, former GOC 18 Division, be tried for wilful neglect of duty in that his offensive plan aimed at the capture of the Indian position of Ramgarh in the Rajasthan area (Western Front) was militarily unsound and haphazardly planned, and its execution resulted in severe loss of vehicles and equipment in the desert. 
(vi) That Lt. Gen. A.A.K. Niazi, former Commander, Eastern Command, be court-martialled on 15 charges as set out in Chapter III of part V of the Supplementary Report regarding his wilful neglect in the performance of his professional and military duties connected with the defence of East Pakistan and the shameful surrender of his forces tot he Indians at a juncture when he still had the capability and resources to offer resistance.
(vii) That Maj Gen Mohammad Jamshed, former GOC 36 (ad-hoc) Division, Dacca, be tried by court martial on five charges listed against him, in the aforementioned part of the report. Supplementary Report, for wilful neglect of his duty in the preparation of plans for the defence of Dacca and showing complete Jack of courage and will to fight, in acquiescing in the decision of the Commander, Eastern Command, to surrender to the Indian forces when it was still possible to put up resistance for a period of two weeks or so, and also for wilfully neglecting to inform the authorities concerned, on repatriation to Pakistan, about the fact of distribution of Rs.50,000 by him out of Pakistan currency notes and to her funds at his disposal or under his control in East Pakistan.

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